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MEDirections is delighted to share Georges Fahmi’s policy paper on

Since the overthrow of the rule of the Muslim Brotherhood in 2013, Egypt’s largest Islamist movement has been witnessing an internal debate over how to face the new regime:  whether to continue its peaceful political approach or to turn to violence to achieve its political goals.

Who are the voices calling for violence and the other voices rejecting it? What is the strategy of each group to advance their respective approaches? And on which resources are they relying? What is the balance of power between the two groups, and is it likely to change in the future?
This policy paper by Georges Fahmi seeks to look closely at the debate over the use of violence within the Muslim Brotherhood, and its impact on both the movement and the political regime in Egypt.


Who Are We?
The Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies (RSCAS) at the European University Institute (EUI) established the MIDDLE EAST DIRECTIONS (MEDirections) Programme in 2016. MEDirections is a continuation of the Mediterranean Programme, which was launched in 1999. The Mediterranean Programme put the EUI at the forefront of the Euro-Mediterranean research dialogue between 1999 and 2013, and MEDirections aspires to build on this reputation to become an international reference point for research on the Middle East and North Africa Region. Its themes encompass socio-political, economic and religious trends and transformations.
The programme's interim director is Brigid Laffan, working with the programme’s senior scientific advisor, Olivier Roy. Its research team is a multidisciplinary pool of researchers with diversified backgrounds, and a vast network of contacts in the countries covered, all with extensive fieldwork experience. To learn more about MEDirections, visit our website:
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