Winter 2013: Web Accessibility Growing Pains

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Coming Soon! New Web Accessibility Standards


Andy Winnegar provides insight and tips for getting ready

""This winter the Access Board will release its final proposal for the revision of Section 508.This is the section of the Rehabilitation Act that defines accessibility standards for electronic information technology procured by the federal government. Also anticipated are new Web accessibility standards for both public and private entities through the Department of Justice (DOJ)’s ADA Title II and Title III proposed revisions. For these reasons, and reasons central to the mission of AT programs in general, it’s an excellent time to brush up on Web site accessibility and consider a strategy for making improvements.

To create the Section 508 "Refresh," as the revision is known, the Access Board has indicated it will directly reference the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 2.0) established by the W3C’s Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). It is also rumored that the WCAG 2.0 guidelines will provide criteria for the new ADA regulations. So how does WCAG 2.0 define Web accessibility for persons with disabilities?

The Guidelines are organized by four principles. These state that in order for Web content to be accessible it must be:
  1. Perceivable - Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive. This means that users must be able to perceive the information being presented (it can't be invisible to all of their senses)
  2. Operable - User interface components and navigation must be operable. This means that users must be able to operate the interface (the interface cannot require interaction that a user cannot perform).
  3. Understandable - Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable. This means that users must be able to understand the information as well as the operation of the user interface (the content or operation cannot be beyond their understanding).
  4. Robust - Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies. This means that users must be able to access the content as technologies advance (as technologies and user agents evolve, the content should remain accessible)
    [Excerpted from this Web page]
Perhaps it demonstrates the immaturity of the Internet in general that even many state Tech Act program sites are not yet fully perceivable, operable, understandable, or robust. Recently I reviewed the sites of the state Tech Act programs using the Accessibility Management Platform (AMP - Summer 2013), a Web-based validator created by the SSB Bart Group, and found that 62% are less than 90% compliant with the current Section 508. Meanwhile, state Tech Act programs rely on their Web sites to help provide statewide access to assistive technology services as required under the AT Act. Web sites are central to the mission.

So where do we go from here?

The DOJ Web site provides examples and resources for planning a Web site overhaul. It provides guidance on creating plans and timelines, for quality improvements, and for how to set up a development process using individuals with disabilities or Web site visitors. Indeed, as Sachin Pavithran emphasized during our August 21st, 2013 RESNA ADA Network Webinar on this topic, more ideas are generated when people who are going to be using the accessibility features of a Web site are involved from the outset. Human evaluators are also called for by WCAG 2.0. (See the sidebar article: Planning Your Accessible Web Site).

Another useful resource is the ADA’s Best Practices Toolkit for State and Local Governments. This includes a Title II checklist for the most common Web accessibility issues and is a good first step for preliminary planning and evaluation. Look it over, too, for a basic orientation to Web site do’s and don’ts.
It’s a good idea to look at existing Web sites and consider different methods for increasing your accessibility, to look for models to share with your organization and stakeholders. Sachin makes the point that you don’t need to worry about communicating technical specifics with IT contractors if you have end goals in mind and can point to examples of what you’d like to create. Two AT program Web sites to start with are Dakotalink and UATP.
It’s also important to look forward. While the Section 508 Refresh may not specifically call for mobile Web accessibility (it remains to be seen), certainly WCAG principal #4, “Robust,” implicates not only access with evolving assistive technologies, but also access with mobile devices. After all, more and more people view the Internet from mobile devices and, therefore, having Web sites that present well on the mobile Web and/or through mobile apps may be increasingly necessary to effectively reach an audience. (Plus Internet accessibility may soon take a leap forward through mobile devices as new marketing and tracking systems identify user preferences across apps, including accessibility needs).

One challenge, however, for programs to be aware of that relates to this mobile consideration is providing information through social media. Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, etc, are often less accessible platforms and they change frequently. One way to get around this is to be sure to duplicate information using more accessible formats; blogs, for example, are much more accessible and can re-present posts sent via social media. And they often display well on mobile devices.
Finally, keep in mind that accessibility is a moving target. The more thoughtful your planning is today--the more durable your established policies, procedures and process--the better prepared your program will be to respond over the long term to changing technology.

Andy Winnegar is a consultant for the Southwest ADA Center, a program of ILRU (Independent Living Research Utilization), at TIRR Memorial Hermann in Houston, Texas.

Approaching Accessibility


John Brandt reflects on the digital evolution and provides nuts and bolts advice to AT programs and others

""About twenty years ago I sat in the basement of the library on the campus of Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP) staring at the one of the two IBM PC computers with enough RAM (2 MB – yes, MB not GB) to run a new application called a “browser.” The application, Mosaic, was one of the first of its kind and the room quickly filled with excitement as we marveled at this new, soon-to-be-called, “World Wide Web” (WWW).

Two years later I was the “Webmaster” for the University of New England, knee-deep in creating Web content and layout. There were no courses then as we taught ourselves the intricacies of HTML and the other assorted computer code needed to fill the WWW with content. In those early years we drooled over the graphic user interface (GUI) and “colorfulness” of the WWW (some of us still remember the world of DOS and monochrome monitors) as well as the ability to use hypertext (i.e. “links) to navigate from “page” to “page; and we never considered the needs of individuals with disabilities. Little did we know we were closing doors for many users.

We have come a long way in those twenty years and perhaps the biggest change in the workings of the WWW over that time has been the movement from static content to dynamic/interactive content. As the UNE Webmaster, I was the only person who could make changes to published Web content, hence the “master” part of the title. But now anyone and everyone who can log into the Internet can be a content producer. It is this evolution that presents the biggest challenge to Web accessibility.

There is plenty of information available detailing accessibility guidelines/standards and equally many tutorials to help designers and developers (the Webmasters of today) to begin the process of ensuring that the “core” Web presence is accessible to all. But ensuring the accessibility of all content created by all users is a monumental task.

Contributing to this dilemma is the fact that today’s Web content is no longer simply HTML. Better we should use the term “digital documents” to describe this content, as nearly all that is communicated via the Internet starts as some form of digital document. Perhaps we need to recognize the fact that with so many content producers, achieving full Internet accessibility will always be just beyond our grasp. Perhaps our goal should be to “approach” accessibility, similar to the Mathematical construct of “approaching infinity.” We know we will never get there, but in the process, we maintain continuous improvement.

With these thoughts in mind, below are some practical objectives and recommendations for how to accomplish them.


  1. Create, and widely distribute, quick, easy-to-understand information “packets” describing how to create accessible digital documents.
  2. Develop smart, intuitive, easy to use accessibility tools that check and assist users to make their digital documents more accessible.
  3. For public accommodations (businesses and organizations that legally must ensure access), develop easy-to-understand policies and procedures for checking and re-checking content and allocating and assigning the resources to monitor and respond as necessary.


  1. The first objective is not too difficult. For at least three or four years, our friends at the National Center on Disabilities and Access to Education (NCDAE) - Goals Project have been developing and publishing sets of free easy-to-use “cheat sheets” to help individuals in the quest to create accessible digital documents. GOALS currently has eleven cheat sheets ranging from how to make accessible digital documents using the leading products from Microsoft and Adobe to how to caption YouTube videos. All of the materials are free and come in easy to print PDF one-pagers that may be distributed to all your content producers. Note, these resources are continually updated as the technologies change and upgrades are released. NCDAE cheat sheets
  2. Since its release of Office 2010, Microsoft has included the Microsoft Office - Accessibility Checker (MSO-AC) in Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. Here is an article about how to use the MSO-AC that we wrote for Maine CITE a few years ago and here is an on-line tutorial from Microsoft for the latest version of Microsoft Office. Note that the MSO-AC does more than simply check for errors, it provides specific directions to the user on how to mitigate errors and problems. Unfortunately, the MSO-AC is currently only available for MSO for Windows.

    A similar accessibility checker is also built into current versions of Adobe Acrobat and Adobe InDesign CS5.5. Visit this NCDAE-GOALS Web page for a quick tutorial as well as cheat sheets for Acrobat and inDesign.
  3. This is the hardest of the three objectives to accomplish, but there has been progress. Many state agencies and educational organizations have already developed and instituted policies detailing the necessity of ensuring content accessibility. Unfortunately, often times this is being driven by fear – no one wants to see the name of their institution on the front page of the New York Times because their Web site failed to meet the needs of one or more of their constituents.

    Sadly, some organizations have interpreted the term “accommodation,” detailed in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, as meaning they don’t have to do anything until a constituent asks for it. However, the proactive approach (not reactive) is much more likely to achieve positive results. It is not only good policy to be forward thinking, but more economical to institute the proactive practice of ensuring all your organization’s materials are accessible rather than to wait for the day when you “have to” accommodate.

    For those who don’t see the value of proactive thinking, here’s a simple example using the notion of Search Engine Optimization (SEO). Uncaptioned video content posted on the web is not indexed by search engines like Google or Bing. Yes, they will “see” you have a video file and will add the name of the file to their index, but the search engine will never “know” anything about the content inside the video. On the other hand, if you caption your video and post the caption file along with the video, the search engines will index the caption file and, as a result, increase the probability that people will find your web content (optimization). This simple step might result in more traffic to your Web site, more constituents being able to find the content on your site, and greater exposure of your organization’s mission to the entire world.
I have often said that accessibility is a “moving target.” Technologies change, methodologies change, and even the users/content creators change. Design standards and guidelines will never be able to keep up with all of these changes, so simply relying on some automated means of checking files against some written accessibility standard may bring a false sense of security.

Accessibility requires training and vigilance. Identifying someone (or preferably a team) in the organization to keep up on the changes and training is essential. Good communication between team members and the larger organization, fostering a climate of teamwork, and supporting and encouraging folks to change their behavior because they will achieve better outcomes should become your organization’s goal as you continue in your effort to “approach accessibility.”
John E. Brandt is the owner of a Web design/development and consulting firm in Augusta, Maine, and a consultant for Maine CITE. He may be reached at

The ATbar -- a Better Web Experience

How this open-source toolbar is helping users view the Web... world wide

""Here's a helpful free toolbar to consider for yourself, for students or clients, and even for your own Web site-- the ATbar! With the ATbar you can alter the appearance of Web pages to create a customized and more accessible Web experience. Installed to your browser or Web page, the toolbar allows you to choose the page's font and font size, contrast and colors, or a simplified layout (among other options). You can also deploy tools for understanding content and accomplishing Web tasks, such as a dictionary, text to speech, and word prediction. There's even a version that lets you choose from a menu of tools to create your own ATbar.
Standard ATbar shows 11 buttons corresponding to different tools.
 Standard ATbar

Created for Both Public and Private Networks

ATbar was originally developed for JISC TechDis, an organization in the UK that provides technical assistance on inclusive and accessible technologies for education and research. The project started as StudyBar, aggregating accessibility tools for students with learning differences as a part of the University of Southampton's LexDis project. According to EA Draffan (of the Electronics and Computer Science department) it evolved into the ATbar after many of their students with dyslexia indicated they did not use their assistive technologies for surfing the Web. "The problem," Draffan explains, "is that users working on public networks are rarely allowed to download executable files or launch programs other than those made available by the organization providing the network." ATbar was designed to overcome this issue. "It was specifically designed so that anyone who wanted some extra support with Web page viewing could use the toolbar in a desktop setting, whether in a private or public space."
ATbar works in Firefox, Chrome, Safari, Opera, and Explorer. Formats are available for:
  • Saving to a browser as a bookmark or favorite  (download  and lite versions);
  • Embedding to a specific Web page (see ATLA’s Web site and AT Program News);
  • Installing on Wordpress as a plugin;
  • Customizing the tools (the Marketplace version--also free--saves as a bookmark/favorite);
  • Use with a USB flash drive for portability (a "Portable Accessibility Toolkit").

Not a Retrofit

ATbar is not meant as a retrofit for Web sites. Indeed, it cannot make an inaccessible Web site accessible (for example it can't help with Web site structure or operability with AT). For the tools to work, a site has to have a level of accessibility at the outset (sadly it does not work with my son's science teacher's Web site, and the Readability tool does not [yet!] work with AT Program News). It is, however, creating a better Web experience for many users. Draffan says statistics show it has been used on 160,000 different sites and has had over 6.7 million users in the last three years.

Now Available in English and Arabic!

ATbar development was supported early on by Fix the Web, a project which helps users report inaccessible Web sites to their developers. Today it is funded by Mada, the assistive technology center in Qatar. Mada has created an Arabic version and is supporting updates to both English and Arabic versions by faculty at the University of Southampton. "Mada is very keen to support open source projects such as the ATbar," reports David Banes, Mada's CEO. "By enhancing the original code to support Arabic, we were able to bring a range of free solutions to the table to support all Arabic speakers. Arabic is the 5th largest language in the world and these tools were a significant contribution to raising the level of availability of access tools for all those users.”

ATbar’s Future

Where will ATbar go from here? Banes says that in the future Mada would like to see ATbar expand to more languages and countries. He also acknowledges a need for a re-build so the toolbar can work with portable Web browsers on smartphones and tablets. And he’d like to see ATbar integrated into other projects. "We see ATbar having great potential for schools. ATbar has no restrictions on use so it is ideal as a means of enhancing digital content in schools. That could have a great impact on increasing inclusion in many schools with very limited budgets."
Banes and Draffan welcome feedback and examples of new uses for ATbar. “Sharing ideas of how ATbar can enhance experience,” they tell ATPN, “would be a significant way to spread the word.”
Learn more about the English ATbar and the Arabic ATbar

WAVE5 -- Packed with Powerful Evaluation Tools

By Sue Reeves of the Center for Persons with Disabilities at Utah State University

WAVE logo with the words, "web accessibility evaluation tool."

Want to check the weather, get the latest headlines, or stump your friends with an obscure bit of trivia? For most people finding that information is as easy as pulling up their favorite Web browser. For people with disabilities, however, surfing the Web can result in the online equivalent of a riptide or wipeout. Even assistive technology, such as screen readers, won’t help if the building blocks of a Web site—its HTML code—are not accessible.

To help Web developers and designers create content that’s available to everyone, Web Accessibility In Mind (WebAIM), a program of Utah State University’s Center for Persons with Disabilities, offers a free Web site evaluation tool called WAVE5. Users simply type in a URL, upload a file or paste in a piece of HTML code, and WAVE5 processes the code and looks for access or compliance issues. Users can also download a free WAVE toolbar within the Firefox Web browser.

“WAVE provides an easy-to-use presentation that is great for facilitating human accessibility evaluation,” notes WebAIM Associate Director Jared Smith. “It can teach you about Web accessibility as you use it. We've developed WAVE to focus on true end-user accessibility, not merely compliance with a set of guidelines, although WAVE can help you make your site compliant.”

Previous versions of WAVE, as well as other Web evaluation tools, generate reports, but they are often difficult to decipher. WAVE5 is much easier to use because a new sidebar offers a color-coded, icon-laden summary of errors and alerts. With just a few mouse clicks, users can see the details of each error and alert as well as a documentation box that lists the error, what it means, why it matters, and how to fix it. In this way users can learn more about Web accessibility as they use the WAVE tool.

WAVE sidebar summary showing evaluation of with 46 errors, 115 alerts, 64 features, 80 structural elements, and 50 contrast errors.

“WAVE5 not only flags true errors, it shows you what you have, so you can answer the question ‘is that what I intended?’” observes WebAIM senior developer Tom Galloway. “The real power of WAVE is that it helps developers with a human evaluation, since not all elements can be determined to be accessible or inaccessible with any automated tool.”

WAVE5 also allows developers to see the page’s actual HTML code as they evaluate it. “It’s so much easier for them to develop it right from the get-go,” Galloway added. “Otherwise, it’s like wiring a house after the drywall has been hung.”

WebAIM took over development of the first version of the tool in 2001 after the death of the original developer, Len Kasday of Temple University. The Firefox browser toolbar was first released in 2008. WebAIM is currently working on releasing Chrome and Firefox toolbars that provide the improved functionality and interface of the WAVE5 online version.

“Rather than focusing on another new version, our focus for the foreseeable future is on small feature improvements, speed enhancements, and providing access to the current WAVE functionality in multiple ways,” Smith reports. For example, a stand-alone API platform was recently released that allows large entities to install the WAVE analysis engine on their own systems for wide-scale evaluation and data collection, rather than checking just one page at a time. “In this way people can use it to check an entire Web site automatically.”    

The online version of WAVE evaluated more than a million pages last year, Smith says. With these and coming enhancements, WebAIM enables developers to ride WAVE toward a rising tide of global Internet accessibility.

Learn more at WebAIM.

Upcoming FREE ATC Webinars on Accessible Web Sites and Docs 

Thanks to the Accessible Technology Coalition for the heads up!

WAVE and WebAIM (Web Accessibility In Mind)
Thursday, November 14th, 2013 from EASI
11 AM Pacific,  2 PM Eastern
Monday, November 18th, 2013 from EASI
11 AM Pacific,  2 PM Eastern
Thursday, November 21, 2013 from ADA National Network
11 AM Pacific, 2 PM Eastern
Monday, December 2nd, 2013 from EASI
11 AM Pacific,  2 PM Eastern
Thursday, December 5th, 2013 from ADA Online Learning
11:30 AM Pacific,  2:30 PM Eastern

It Takes a Village!


Janet Jendron shares the South Carolina Assistive Technology Program’s approach to Web accessibility

Since 2006, the SC Assistive Technology Program (SCATP) has partnered with the South Carolina Assistive Technology Advisory Committee (ATAC) to connect people, agencies, and anyone interested in promoting accessibility and usability of Web and electronic information. The common bond is a passion and an intense curiosity about Web/IT accessibility. The benefits to participants have been diverse and rewarding.
ATAC members represent government, private industry, education, and the non-profit arena. Members meet monthly to discuss the latest issues and pool resources for trainings and technical assistance to agencies, organizations and people who need help with designing and implementing programs that make information technology available to a wider audience. ATAC provides trainings, resources, and technical assistance to state agencies and others who want to be involved.  

Group photo of ATAC members including a seated man with a lap top.
ATAC at the 2013 SC SUCCEEDS conference.
Back, left to right: Lisa Lanpher, Columbia International University, Janet Jendron, SCATP, Tina Vires, Limestone College, Sharon Bellwood, Greenville Tech. Front, left to right: Cheryl Kirkpatrick, Midlands Tech, David Bundy, SC Commission for the Blind 

CB Averitt, a private industry accessibility consultant, began his ATAC membership while at a SC technical college. He says, “ATAC’s diversity is incredible, with members from many walks of life with different needs. Being able to see how people actually use assistive technology on the Internet has been incredibly eye-opening.  Our process is dynamic and has brought us together to work creatively and constructively. Nobody ever leaves an ATAC meeting without new motivation and insight!”
The original AT Advisory Committee included administrators from state agencies. Early on, ATAC expanded to include Web developers (people actually doing the work with Web pages), people who use assistive technology, and others “in the trenches” and responsible for providing accessible information.

Web Testers

One unique result of ATAC collaboration is the creation of a SC Web Testers Program. Administered by SCATP, the program trains people who use assistive technology, and some who don't, to evaluate Web sites and electronic information for accessibility and usability. Testers are recruited through referrals from agencies, referrals from our testers, and through announcements to groups who are connected to people using AT to access the web.

When a test is set up, we consult people from the agency or organization to help design the test with a balance of objective feedback on legal accessibility requirements and more subjective feedback about assigned tasks. Web Testers evaluate pages using a variety of tools including an accessibility/usability questionnaire. These are updated as technology, standards and evaluation tools evolve. Testers provide descriptions of Web site experiences and make suggestions to developers, administrators and content writers for improvement. Their reports include explanations of accessibility principles and resources for remediation. The report usually includes an in-person presentation that incorporates a Web Tester demonstrating how his/her AT accesses their Web information.
Comments on the SCATP Web site reflect the reactions of people who have used the program and ATAC’s resources. Robin Wheeler, Executive Director of the South Carolina Access to Justice Commission, employed Testers to assess accessibility of a document assembly program for self-represented litigants. "This program provided critical feedback about usability and accessibility,” she notes. “It also gave us personal input from each of the testers, bringing a real face to accessibility."

A Web Tester sums up the benefits she experienced this way: "Web testing was my first real job. I learned the challenges Web designers face in developing accessible content, and how to explain the changes needed. …. I gained confidence in speaking to proven professionals in the assistive technology field without feeling like an ‘underling.’ … I learned valuable information about assistive technology, but I learned more about myself."
Looking forward, SCATP plans to expand the number of Web Testers, provide more in-depth training, improve and add to the testing and reporting process, and partner with regional and national resources. Years ago we gathered a group of people who knew little about these issues. With commitment and respect for each other, we’ve come a long way towards making a difference in South Carolina.
Janet Jendron, Program Coordinator, SC Assistive Technology Program; Chair, Web Accessibility Committee, SC Assistive Technology Advisory Committee

Planning Your Accessible Web Site

Here are some recommended steps from the Department of Justice and others that your organization might consider.
  1. Develop an accessibility Web site planning page on your website:

    a) Describe your plan and encourage input on improvements,

    b) Ask which pages should be given high priority for change,

    c) Involve your advisory group and stakeholders,

    d) Collect input and comments to guide your work.
  2. Ensure that in-house staff and contractors responsible for Web page and content development are properly trained:

    a) Sponsor Web accessibility training for IT personnel and contractors,

    b) Consider these Web accessibility training and resources: WebAIM, WAICATEA, and Webucator

    c) Find model accessibility features and Web sites to share with IT personnel and contractors.
  3. Provide a way for visitors to request accessible information or services by posting a telephone number or E-mail address on your home page.
  4. Establish procedures to assure a quick response to users with disabilities who are trying to obtain information or services in this way.
  5. Periodically enlist disability groups to test your pages for ease of use; use this information to increase accessibility.
  6. Budget for Web site accessibility including services, software, and personnel. 

Read to Me... Please!

Anna Colley considers the Web accessibility and online learning needs of preschoolers and other pre-readers

As a computer lab teacher of both typical and special needs preschoolers, I am constantly looking for Web sites that provide meaningful interactivity 
and practice for students who are pre-readers, non-readers, or just beginning to read. I am always frustrated to find a Web site that claims to offer preschool or special needs learning activities, yet requires reading.

One site I recently evaluated said it was designed for toddlers,
preschoolers, and early elementary students with special needs.One activity designed for students with autism spectrum disorders asked students to select the picture of the face showing the given emotion. Unfortunately, the emotions were listed in text only, with no support for non-readers. Strike that site off the list!

What features can sites offer to provide support for non-readers and pre-readers?

  • Audio support: Provide an option for the user to hear written text read aloud, either through mouseover or by clicking to get text on demand. Real human voices are usually easier for students to understand than computerized voices.
  • Picture communication symbol (PCS) support: Provide a visual cue to help users unlock the meaning of text using picture symbols such as Symbol Stix or Boardmaker.
  • Other visual support: Use an icon, symbol, photo, or other visual to support text and navigation.
  • Video or animation support: Use video or animation to provide both visual and audio support for written text.

Sample Web sites that provide support for pre-readers and non-readers:

  • Pebble Go: This subscription-based site provides high-interest, low level encyclopedia-style text on a variety of topics, with full, human-voice audio support. Every article also includes photographs to illustrate each section of text. This allows even the youngest users to participate in research.
  • Sheppard Software: This free site's preschool section offers audio and visual support for every word. Mouse over any button or text and hear the text read aloud by a real person. 
  • ABCmouse: This website, free to educators, is aimed at preschool and kindergarten students. The site provides rich visual cues as well as mouseover audio support with a real human voice.
  • BrainPOP and BrainPOP, Jr.: These sister sites offer animated videos on a variety of academic topics. Familiar characters, question-and-answer format, and easy-to-understand explanations make complicated topics accessible to learners at differing functional levels. Every button includes a visual cue, and on the BrainPOP, Jr. site, which is aimed at K-2 students, all buttons have mouseover audio as well. These sites are subscription-based, but there is some free content as well.
Providing support for non-readers, pre-readers, and beginning readers is a must for any Web site that seeks to be accessible. Whether a site offers pictures, audio, or some combination of the two, this universal design feature benefits a variety of Web site visitors and makes a site accessible to the widest audience possible. Online learning can be truly powerful when thoughtful Web designers include appropriate supports for all.

Anna Colley, Local School Technology Coordinator, Monarch School, Duluth, Georgia

More Web Accessibility Validators

Tools for checking how well your Web site meets guidelines and standards (WCAG 2.0 and Section 508)

Read an overview about validators at this HTMLGoodies blog post (a little out of date, but still a useful orientation). 

Dig deeper into Accessible Web Design with help from John Brandt and Maine CITE!
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. Content may be reproduced for non-commercial uses!
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