Copy
An online news cutting service that specialises in news relating to polio and post-polio issues; disability and other health-related issues may also be covered.
ppn
Updates from

Post-Polio News RSS Feed

Wrong About Polio: A Review of Suzanne Humphries, MD and Roman Bystrianyk’s “Dissolving Illusions” Part 1 (the short version) | Science-Based Medicine.

[November 9, 2018]

[[Science-Based Medicine] Editor’s note: This is Joel A. Harrison, PhD, MPH second guest post. Dr. Harrison’s papers involve much longer in-depth analyses than usual blog posts, so we are posting both a “short version” and later the “long version”. Note that a downloadable PDF version of complete paper, including a detailed reference list, can be accessed here.]



From early childhood, though enjoying Sherlock Holmes, H.G. Wells, Jules Verne, and other works of fiction, I especially liked reading history and science, subscribing to the old adage that “truth is stranger than fiction.” Then I read a book that had a profound effect on me, William H. McNeil’s 1976 Plagues and Peoples. McNeil made a compelling case that much of human history has been determined not by great statesmen, nor military leaders, nor technology; but by the lowly microbe. In the 40 years since then I have read dozens of books and hundreds of articles on each of various infectious diseases from plague to smallpox to influenza to polio, numerous histories of each, their current status around the world, and, of course, their epidemiology. And along the way did graduate work in epidemiology, biostatistics, and read numerous textbooks and articles and audited courses on microbiology and immunology.

I am writing this article not only because polio seems to be one of the antivaccinationists’ favorite topics, which they often use to demonstrate to their uninformed readers the evils of vaccines and national vaccination programs (e.g., Adams. 2018Child Health Safety, 2018Olmsted, 2011Olmsted, 2016VacTruth, 2018whale to, 2018); but also because polio has a special significance for me. As a child I remember my mother not allowing me to go to the local municipal swimming pool nor to the movies during polio season. In my elementary school was a little girl with a steel brace on one leg. During my life I have known several paraplegics. One, in particular, the older sister of one of my oldest dearest friends, met a man in the late 1980s who had been in an iron lung for almost 40 years, and several people who suffered from post-polio syndrome. And through my readings I discovered that my hometown, San Diego, had a major epidemic of polio in 1951 and being in the first cohort to receive the new Salk vaccine, I more than likely received a dose from a lot manufactured by Cutter Industries which because of poor production and quality control caused 204 cases of paralytic polio and 10 deaths (to be discussed in a later paper). So, fortunately, I dodged at least two bullets.

Unfortunate incidents and avoidable errors do occur; but these rare events should not be the basis on which to decide the merit of things like public health programs, as some, including Suzanne Humphries and Roman Bystrianyk in their book Dissolving Illusions, have attempted. Even more egregious is the attempt to take a monumentally significant public health issue like polio and, using “alternative facts”, minimize its significance, going so far as to claim that polio was an “insignificant” disease. This paper will show their total lack of credibility.

[Continue reading in source article]


Original Source Article »

share on Twitter Like Wrong About Polio: A Review of Suzanne Humphries, MD and Roman Bystrianyk’s “Dissolving Illusions” Part 1 (the short version) | Science-Based Medicine. on Facebook

+++

Coverage and timeliness of vaccination and the validity of routine estimates: Insights from a vaccine registry in Kenya | Vaccine.

[Open Access] [Received 8 October 2018, Revised 31 October 2018, Accepted 1 November 2018, Available online 8 November 2018] [In Press, Corrected Proof]

Highlights.

* A high coverage is essential if the full benefits of vaccines are to be enjoyed.

* A vaccine registry can help quantify the errors in coverage estimates from surveys.

* Vaccination coverage obtained using a survey approach overestimates coverage by 2%.

* Survey and administrative methods underestimate fully immunised children by ≥10%.

* Non-hospital delivery and stock-outs were associated with failure to vaccinate.

Abstract.

Background.

The benefits of childhood vaccines are critically dependent on vaccination coverage. We used a vaccine registry (as gold standard) in Kenya to quantify errors in routine coverage methods (surveys and administrative reports), to estimate the magnitude of survivor bias, contrast coverage with timeliness and use both measures to estimate population immunity.

Methods.

Vaccination records of children in the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS), Kenya were combined with births, deaths, migration and residence data from 2010 to 17. Using inverse survival curves, we estimated up-to-date and age-appropriate vaccination coverage, calculated mean vaccination coverage in infancy as the area under the inverse survival curves, and estimated the proportion of fully immunised children (FIC). Results were compared with published coverage estimates. Risk factors for vaccination were assessed using Cox regression models.

Results.

We analysed data for 49,090 infants and 48,025 children aged 12–23 months in 6 birth cohorts and 6 cross-sectional surveys respectively, and found 2nd year of life surveys overestimated coverage by 2% compared to birth cohorts. Compared to mean coverage in infants, static coverage at 12 months was exaggerated by 7–8% for third doses of oral polio, pentavalent (Penta3) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, and by 24% for the measles vaccine. Surveys and administrative coverage also underestimated the proportion of the fully immunised child by 10–14%. For BCG, Penta3 and measles, timeliness was 23–44% higher in children born in a health facility but 20–37% lower in those who first attended during vaccine stock outs.

Conclusions.

Standard coverage surveys in 12–23 month old children overestimate protection by ignoring timeliness, and survivor and recall biases. Where delayed vaccination is common, up-to-date coverage will give biased estimates of population immunity. Surveys and administrative methods also underestimate FIC prevalence. Better measurement of coverage and more sophisticated analyses are required to control vaccine preventable diseases.


Original Source Article »

share on Twitter Like Coverage and timeliness of vaccination and the validity of routine estimates: Insights from a vaccine registry in Kenya | Vaccine. on Facebook

+++

Nigeria: Polio: UNICEF To Partner NPC On Issuance Of Birth Certificates | Sundiata Post.

[November 9, 2018]

Hauwa Gold writes:

Sokoto    –       The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) is set to partner with the National Population Commission (NPC) on the issuance of birth certificates.

Alhaji Shu’aibu Sahabi, Director, Primary Healthcare, Yabo Local Government Area (LGA) said on Friday in Sokoto that the partnership was targeted at boosting immunisation of children against polio.

He said that over 38,192 children were expected to be immunised with the FIPV/OPV in the LGA during the exercise.

He added that the state government had also supported the exercise by providing the Adverse Event follow up Immunisation Kit (AEI) in order to control any effect of the vaccine.

Sahabi also commended the supportive roles of the district heads in mobilising their people for the exercise.

NAN reports that the exercise was encouraging as the turnout of children for immunisation was impressive.

Mr Jibril Bello, a parent, told NAN that he longed to see a community free of polio.

“I am happy with this development as our children’s immune system will grow strong against the disease and we pray to have a polio free community soon,” he said.

Another parent, Malam Shehu Yabo, said, “This is a welcome development as a lot of children are being immunised and we are happy.

“We urge the state government to make a legislation that punishes any parent that refuses to get his or her ward immunised across the state.’’


Original Source Article »

share on Twitter Like Nigeria: Polio: UNICEF To Partner NPC On Issuance Of Birth Certificates | Sundiata Post. on Facebook

+++

Polio this week as of 06 November 2018 | GPEI.

  • [S]ummary of new viruses this week: Afghanistan – No new cases of wild poliovirus (WPV1) or WPV1 positive environmental samples. Pakistan – Two new cases of wild poliovirus (WPV1) and two WPV1 positive environmental samples. Papua New Guinea – no new cases reported this week. Democratic Republic of Congo – two new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2). Nigeria- four new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2). Somalia- no new cases reported this week. Niger- one new case of circulating vaccine-driven polio virus type 2 (cVDPV2).  See country sections [in source article] for more details.
  • The Semi-Annual Status Report for January-June 2018 was recently published with detailed narrative for each of the Endgame Plan strategic objectives.

Original Source Article »

share on Twitter Like Polio this week as of 06 November 2018 | GPEI. on Facebook

+++

Immunogenicity of New Primary Immunization Schedules With Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine for the Polio Endgame: A Review | Clinical Infectious Diseases.

[Open Access] [Published: 30 October 2018]

Abstract.

In May 2016, countries using oral polio vaccine for routine immunization switched from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent type 1 and 3 OPV (bOPV). This was done in order to reduce risks from type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2) and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and to introduce ≥1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) to mitigate post-switch loss of type 2 immunity. We conducted a literature review of studies that assessed humoral and intestinal immunogenicity induced by the newly recommended schedules. Differences in seroconversion rates were closely associated with both timing of first IPV administration and number of doses administered. All studies demonstrated high levels of immunity for types 1 and 3 regardless of immunization schedule. When administered late in the primary series, a second dose of IPV closed the humoral immunity gap against polio type 2 associated with a single dose. IPV doses and administration schedules appear to have limited impact on type 2 excretion following challenge.


Original Source Article »

share on Twitter Like Immunogenicity of New Primary Immunization Schedules With Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine for the Polio Endgame: A Review | Clinical Infectious Diseases. on Facebook

+++

Copyright © 2018 Chris Salter, All rights reserved.
Email Marketing Powered by Mailchimp