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Effects of the thermal denaturation of Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccines on the D-antigenicity and the immunogenicity in rats | Vaccine.

[Pay to View Full Text] [Received 28 November 2019, Revised 4 March 2020, Accepted 10 March 2020, Available online 17 March 2020]

Abstract.

The efficacy of a Sabin-derived inactivated polio vaccine (sIPV) can be evaluated by measuring the immunogenicity and the contents of D-antigens, which induce the neutralizing antibodies. The immunogenic potency test in rats was done as a national assay in Japan. The two manufacturers of sIPV in Japan have performed both assays since development, and there is no clear discrepancy between the results obtained in the two assays. To further know the relationship between the two assays, we analyzed the effects of the heat treatment of sIPV on the D-antigenicity and the immunogenicity. We observed that the marginal D-antigen that remained after the thermal treatment was capable of inducing relatively high neutralizing antibodies in rats. This indicates that the measurement of the D-antigen contents as part of the quality control of sIPV is more sensitive and appropriate to detect denatured vaccines.


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Pakistan: 900 containers received for quarantined guests | The Express Tribune.

[March 22, 2020]

QUETTA: Balochistan Chief Secretary Fazeel Asghar said that National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has dispatched 900 containers equipped with lodging and toilet facilities for patients who have tested positive for coronavirus and kept in quarantine.

“Six hundred containers will be transported to Taftan and the remaining will be dispatched to Quetta,” said the chief secretary, briefing a meeting chaired by Balochistan Chief Minister Jam Kamal and attended by the provincial secretaries, public health officers, World Health Organisation (WHO) representatives and other officials.

The meeting took stock of measures taken for prevention and treatment of novel coronavirus — also known as COVID-19 — as well as assigned roles to medical and health experts for preventive measures in quarantine centres and isolation wards.

It was decided during the meeting that preventive measures and awareness campaigns would be initiated in collaboration with scholars and political interlocutors and supervised by divisional commissioners, deputy commissioners, district health officers, assistant commissioner, senior superintendent police officersand tehsildars in their respective areas.

The awareness campaign would continue for three days while pamphlets would be distributed to disseminate precautionary information among people. Polio workers, lady health workers would be sent door to door to educate locals on what precautionary measures to take to stave off the deadly virus.

The attendees decided to take emergency measures to battle with coronavirus and make the role of People’s Primary Healthcare Initiative (PPHI) effective in order to upgrade treatment facilities at isolation wards.

Besides, the meeting reviewed report of Core Committee related to coronavirus measures.

For the awareness of public and counteract propaganda through social media, the Committee’s statement would be presented on a daily basis in order to update the situation, the meeting decided.


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Camps and Sites - Sub-District Profile: Northwest Syria Camps and Sites Assessment, January/February 2020 | ReliefWeb.

[Sources: REACH UN] [Published: 19 Mar 2020] [Origin: View original]

Background.

Northwest Syria currently hosts over 2.8 million internally displaced persons (IDPs). Since late April 2019, areas in southern Idleb and western Aleppo have experienced sporadic and significant escalations in conflict. This has displaced many civilians to areas in northern and western Idleb, and northern Aleppo, in order to seek refuge. At the time data collection commenced, approximately 158,000 IDP families were residing in Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM)-registered sites, with large numbers also residing in unregistered sites.

Between 1 December 2019 and 5 March 2020 almost 1 million people were further displaced3 as conflict escalated again. Several sub-districts in northwest Syria received significant numbers of new IDPs, including Dana sub-district (211,597), Azaz sub-district (107,616), and Maaret Tamsrin subdistrict (71,913). This influx of new IDPs is putting increased pressure on existing resources and services in an area where the ongoing conflict is already creating significant challenges in providing humanitarian assistance to people in need. A multi-sectoral, household-level camps and sites needs assessment was developed to address information gaps around priority needs for IDPs in northwest Syria.

Methodology.

This assessment was initiated by REACH and the CCCM cluster, and feedback on the assessment was provided by the WASH, Early Recovery and Livelihoods, Shelter and Non-Food Items, Education, Protection, Health, Food Security and Livelilhoods, and CCCM clusters. Data was collected between 30 January and 16 February 2020, through 1,170 randomly sampled household-level interviews. Data collection was conducted by the Humanitarian Needs Assessment Programme (HNAP), with data cleaning and analysis conducted by REACH. Households were sampled to obtain statistically representative data at a 90% confidence level and a 10% margin of error at the sub-district level for registered sites in six sub-districts (Azaz, Maaret Tamsrin, Harim, Salqin, Badama, and Al Bab) and unregistered sites in two sub-districts (Dana and Maaret Tamsrin), and at a smaller aggregated cluster level for registered sites in Dana sub-district. Due to its large population, registered sites in Dana were sampled by dividing the sub-district into six smaller cluster units by aggregating already designated CCCM cluster units. At the sampling level these clusters are equivalent to the other six sampled sub-districts. Given the dynamic situation in northwest Syria, the information in these profiles should only be considered as relevant to the time of data collection.

Key Findings.

Assessed sub-districts/clusters: 12

  • Shelter: Over 80% of surveyed households in all sampled sub-districts except for Maaret Tamsrin (among its sampled unregistered sites) reported that they were living in family-sized tents. The majority of households in registered sites in Dana (over 94% of households in each cluster) and both unregistered and registered sites in Maaret Tamsrin (over 50% of households) reported having no access to electricity.

  • Protection: Over half of assessed households in the majority of sub-districts/clusters reported they were missing some form of documentation. Most sub-districts/clusters (86%) had one or more households that reported a security incident in the 30 days prior to data collection.

  • Health: Only 4% of assessed households in Azaz and 17% of assessed households in Atma reported that members of their household with a chronic disease had access to essential medicines. Less than 80% of under-five children in assessed households in Dana had received a polio vaccination.

  • WASH: Less than 15% of assessed households in all sub-districts except Al Bab did not have enough water for drinking, cooking, and cleaning. In Al Bab, 26% of assessed households did not have enough drinking water and 30% of assessed households did not have enough water for cooking and cleaning. Over 10% of households in Badama and Harim had a member who could not access latrines, possibly due to disability or elderly status.

  • Food security: The average food consumption score for households in Atma was 24, which is considered “poor” in the Syrian context. The average food consumption scores for households in Al Bab, Harim, Karama and Qah, and all sites in Maaret Tamsrin were in the 28-42 range, which is considered “borderline” in the Syrian context.

  • Livelihoods: With the exception of two of the clusters in Dana, more than 50% of all households reported that the majority of their spending was going towards food


Download report (PDF | 711.87 KB)


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Socioeconomic characteristics associated with the introduction of new vaccines and full childhood vaccination in Ghana, 2014 | Vaccine.

[Pay to View Full Text] [Received 1 October 2019, Revised 31 January 2020, Accepted 20 February 2020, Available online 2 March 2020]

Abstract.

Background.

Childhood vaccination in Ghana has historically been high, but the impact of recently introduced vaccines on coverage is unknown. We calculate vaccine coverage of Ghanaian children– contrasting newly introduced vaccines and those long available – and describe associations between sociodemographic indicators and full vaccination.

Methods.

Data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey was used to calculate full vaccination, defined as receipt of one dose bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG); two doses of rotavirus vaccine; 3 doses of pentavalent vaccine, oral polio vaccine (OPV), and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV); and one dose of measles-rubella vaccine and yellow fever vaccine, among children age 12–24 months. Logistic regression with survey procedures was used to estimate odds ratios for socioeconomic factors’ association with full vaccination.

Results.

The sample comprised a total of 1107 children 12–24 months. Full vaccination coverage was 70.8%. Vaccination coverage was higher for vaccines administered at younger ages (e.g., birth dose of BCG was 97.0%) than at older ages (e.g., yellow fever at 9 months was 88.2%). Newly introduced vaccines had lower coverage: at 10 weeks, pentavalent 2 was 95.4%, versus 91.2% for PCV 2 and 88.8% for rotavirus 2. Living outside of Greater Accra, home delivery, younger maternal age, urban residence, and more than one child under five in the home were all associated with decreased odds of full vaccination in the adjusted analysis whereas sex of the child, wealth, religion, and maternal education were not associated with full vaccination status.

Conclusion.

Ghana has high overall vaccination rates although disparities in full vaccination by sociodemographic status exist. As vaccine recommendations are revised, it will be important to insure equitable access to vaccination for all children regardless of demographic and socioeconomic background.


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Pakistan: Polio Vaccination Target Achieved In High Risk Areas | UrduPoint.

[20th March 2020] Umer Jamshaid writes:

RAWALPINDI, (UrduPoint / Pakistan Point News - 20th Mar, 2020 ) :Health teams on Friday claimed to have achieved polio vaccination target set for high risk areas of the city and cantonment under a five-day drive which concluded on March 20.

Talking to APP,Incharge Anti-polio drive Chaudary Muhammad Hussain said over 413,000 children, below five years age, were administered anti-polio drops during the campaign launched in 46 union councils of the city , 28 union councils of Rawalpindi and Chaklala Cantonment Boards and 15 union councils of rural areas of Tehsil Rawalpindi which have been declared high-risk areas.

He said the purpose for launching the special drive was the presence of Mono type 2 polio virus in union council Girja,tehsil Rawalpindi.

The Deputy Commissioner Capt?Anwar ul Haq monitored the campaign and visited various areas to inspect the working of polio teams,he added.


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Nigeria: Inactivated Polio Vaccination flagged off At Irrua | The Nigerian Observer.

[21st March 2020] Bernadette Idalu writes:

BENIN CITY- Edo State Government in collaboration with it’s partner agency, the World Health Organization (WHO), on Friday, flagged off the, “Fractional inactivated polio eradication campaign” in Edo State at Akho Primary School, Irrua, Esan Central Local Government Area.

The vaccination exercise which runs from March 21 to 27, 2020, across designated healthcare centres in the local government, is meant to trace susceptible and eligible children within designated age bracket of “0- 59” months for vaccination to boost their immunity to fight and eradicate childhood diseases including poliomyelitis.

The fractional inactivated polio eradication vaccination administered in two formats (oral or injection) gives cover to eligible children ages 0- 59 months if vaccination with Bivalent Orimune Oral Polio Virus (BOPV) while others aged three months – 59 months get protected by administration with the Fractional Inactivated Polio Virus (FIPV) vaccine.

The vaccination is meant to run in four (4) of the eighteen local government areas of Edo State, “Etsako Central, Etsako East, Esan Central and Esan North-East,” due to shared boundary and attendant migrational commercial activities with Kogi State which has weakened surveillance.

Edo State Primary Health Care Development Agency (EDSPHCDA) State Immunization Officer (SIO), Mrs. Charity Usifo said the vaccination would give coverage to eligible children who missed the previous poliomyelitis eradication exercise, upping the ante in the fight that leaves no child behind or unimmunized, to prevent a disease reoccurrence.

Explaining, she stated that this vaccination exercise was a follow-up on the September/October 2009 vaccination programme, based on an “Outbreak Response (OBR) programme,” put in place to reach and protect vulnerable children from contracting polio.

She voiced, “This local government area is one of the four chosen for the exercise because it shares border with Kogi State which has “circulatory virus.” This is done to backup the previous response carried out in September/October last year to buffer up on the two Esan Local Government Areas (Esan Central and Esan North-East) which are weak on surveillance.”

The fractional inactivated polio eradication exercise she upheld is different from the previous one, this is a follow-up on the inactivated polio virus vaccination (IPV), hence, the reduced administration to, “One fifth” quantity (1/5) of the original dose as a booster to immunity.

Usifo maintained that the flag off of this vaccination process was highly successful since mothers voluntarily brought eligible children for participation which she observed would form a support base for children from the other three at risk local government areas to let them know that the state is in full support for the surveillance and vaccination of children not yet reached.

“Esan North-East is a weak Local Government Area, the state had to come there to support the flag off of the Fractional inactivated polio eradication campaign. However, since this vaccination is fractional, it means the right dose for the IPV is 0.5mls but in the inactivated we give one fifth of the full dose, which is 0.1mls, that is why the name fractional came into existence.”

Chairman, Esan Central, Hon. Waziri Edokpa represented by his wife, Mrs. Edokpa Fadal- Mary praised Edo state government in partnership with health agencies for putting in place and flagging off the vaccination programme which would lead to a reduction of diseases that ravage the state especially in children who have an opportunity to be vaccinated for optimal health and a better tomorrow.

“What is happening in other places has taken place here too, which is kudos to our governor and his government. I feel so happy. A new way of carrying out this exercise has been introduced with the idea of gifting children with edibles which has motivated them to step forward to take the vaccination.

This exercise is free. We hope to reach a lot of people in the interiors. We have health centres in all the ten wards, we hope to get children vaccinated using the health centre closest to them due to the strategic plan of the chairman and his team through the health department.

We have sensitized the people concerning the exercise through the use of town criers so they are aware of what is going on. Mothers should make good use of this exercise.”

Head of Service, Esan Central Local Government Council, Mr. Odigie Austine said of the four at risk local governments, they at Esan Central take, “The health of our people as our priority. We don’t play with it. The flag off has been done here. We are moving interior to cover the ten wards in Esan Central. I am impressed with the crowd that turned up.”

Against prevailing background, It should be noted that polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis through use of an inactivated poliovirus given through an injection. It could also be administered through the administration of a weakened poliovirus by mouth.

Poliomyelitis or Polio is a virus that, “May cause paralysis which is easily preventable through use of the polio vaccine. It is transmitted through use (ingestion) of contaminated water, food or contact with an infected person.”


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