Polio this week as of 23 December 2020 | ReliefWeb.
[News and Press Release] [Source: GPEI] [Posted: 24 Dec 2020] [Originally Published: 24 Dec 2020] [Origin: View original]
Polio this week as of 23 December 2020.
The19th report of the Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) has been published. The IMB notes the strong resumption of polio campaigns following the temporary pause due to COVID-19 and commends the programme for supporting COVID-19 response efforts. The IMB points to several pivotal challenges which the programme must tackle with urgency to achieve success and offers a set of 17 key recommendations to capitalise on the momentum of resumed immunizations.
The GPEI has published a global cVDPV resource document aimed at providing a high-level overview of cVDPVs, their importance to the programme and strategy for responding to them, including nOPV2. Available here in various languages, this resource can be used at global, regional and country levels, for high-level advocacy with government counterparts, internal staff, donors or other partners, as appropriate.
On a wintery November day, vaccinators across Afghanistan wrapped up warm, checked that they had face masks and hand sanitizer, and headed out into the cold morning. Their mission? To reach 9.9 million children with polio vaccines, before snowfall blocked their way.
Summary of new WPV and cVDPV viruses this week (AFP cases andES positives):
- Afghanistan: two WPV1 and 23 cVDPV2 positive environmental samples
- Pakistan: one WPV1 and 11 cVDPV2 cases
- Benin: one cVDPV2 positive environmental sample
- Burkina Faso: six cVDPV2 cases
- Chad: two cVDPV2 cases
- South Sudan: 10 cVDPV2 cases and one cVDPV2 positive environmental sample
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Pakistan: Anti-polio campaign ends with promising results | The News International.
[December 24, 2020]
LAHORE:The Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) campaign which was conducted in three selected districts of Punjab ended on Tuesday with promising results, a polio programme spokesperson said in a handout released on Wednesday.
According to the data available, the polio programme has achieved more than 100 per cent coverage in the campaign, which was held in selected union councils of the three districts of Punjab, including Lahore, DG Khan and Rajanpur.
Overall 0.91 million children were administered polio vaccine in the 10-day campaign. Over 0.63 million children were administered polio vaccine in Lahore alone.
During the campaign, over 0.16 million and 0.11 million children were vaccinated in both DG Khan and Rajanpur, respectively. Implementation of the campaign is a major success, said the Punjab Polio programme head Ms Sundas Irshad in a statement.
“The success in the campaign is indebted to the polio teams who worked hard in harsh winter weather to reach and vaccinate children”, said the head of the polio programme. Acknowledging the support of parents in the campaign, Ms Irshad said that owing to their trust polio teams were able to achieve the desired vaccination coverage target.
“The high coverage in the campaign will help build immunity and protect the targeted children against the crippling virus,” she said. Since the halt in campaigns due to COVID-19 in March, Punjab has seen increased incidence of children falling prey to the polio virus. The halt deprived millions of children of the critical oral polio vaccine leaving them vulnerable to the virus.
So, the government of Punjab planned a special IPV campaign in which all children between 4-59 months were given one dose of IPV. Multiple studies have shown that IPV together with the OPV is the best combination to boost immunity. This means that not only individual children are better protected from polio virus, but also it means that they are less infectious towards other children. Punjab reported 14 polio cases in 2020. While in 2019 the provincial tally stood at 12 cases. Out of the 26 polio cases in two years, 17 were reported from Lahore, DG Khan and Rajanpur. The prevalence of polio virus has also been proven in almost all polio environment sampling sites.
Original Source Article »
Pakistan: 0.7m children to be administered anti-polio drops | The Nation.
[December 24, 2020]
BAHAWALPUR - As many as 717,699 children under age 5 would be administered anti-Polio drops in the district during the anti-polio drive starting from January 11, 2021. This was told in a meeting held here on Wednesday chaired by the Deputy Commissioner Muzaffar Khan Sial at his office. Focal Person Dr Zaki Ali briefed the meeting that 1770 teams had been constituted for the campaign which included 1464 mobile teams, 173 fixed teams and 133 transit teams while five special teams had also been formed to administer anti-polio vaccines to children residing in the Cholistan, at river banks and of gipsies. As many as 3932 polio workers would participate in the drive. The campaign will be monitored by 296 Area In-charges, 122 Union Council Monitoring Officers and six Tehsil supervisors.
Deputy Commissioner directed to use masks, gloves and hand sanitisers during the campaign in order to avoid the spread of coronavirus. He said that all-out efforts were needed to make the campaign successful and make the district polio-free.
Original Source Article »
Safety and immunogenicity of a new inactivated polio vaccine made from Sabin strains: a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, phase 2/3 seamless study | The Journal of Infectious Diseases.
[Open Access] [Received: 08 November 2020; Published: 22 December 2020]
A new inactivated polio vaccine made from Sabin strains (sIPV) was developed as part of the global polio eradication initiative.
This randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, phase 2/3 seamless study was conducted in two stages. Healthy infants aged 6 weeks were randomly assigned to receive three doses of one of four study vaccines at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age (336 received low-, middle-, or high-dose sIPV, or conventional IPV [cIPV] in Stage I, and 1086 received lot A, B, or C of the selected sIPV dose, or cIPV in Stage II). The primary outcome was the seroconversion rate 4 weeks after the third vaccination.
In Stage I, low-dose sIPV was selected as the optimal dose. In Stage II, consistency among the three manufacturing lots of sIPV was demonstrated. The seroconversion rates for Sabin and wild strains of the 3 serotypes after the three-dose primary series were 95.8% to 99.2% in the lot-combined sIPV group and 94.8% to 100% in the cIPV group, proving the non-inferiority of sIPV compared to cIPV. No notable safety risks associated with sIPV were observed.
Original Source Article »
Low-dose sIPV administered as a three-dose vaccination was safe and immunogenic compared to cIPV.
New Polio Vaccine: A Road to Nowhere? | Robert Fortner.
[21st December 2020]
WHO grants emergency approval but study says the new vax is no game-changer.
nOPV2 won’t close out vaccine-derived poliovirus (Image source)
Robert Fortner writes:
A new polio vaccine, years in the making and presumptive silver bullet, won’t stop transmission of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) which will continue through at least 2029, according to a model published just weeks before the vaccine is set for a limited roll out, following emergency approval by the World Health Organization (WHO).
If the novel strain turns out to revert like its predecessor, even if less frequently, the model projects that, unexpectedly, the new vaccine would lead to more cases of paralysis from cVDPV.
The study, led by Kid Risk, includes authors from the US Centers for Disease Control and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. It also forecasts a return to the old formulation of the vaccine, which would mark a loss of face for global health authorities and impinge the declining credibility of the polio eradication project, now two decades past its deadline of 2000. Budget shortfalls and vaccine supply issues might further compress the project’s limited room for maneuver.
[Continue reading in source article]
Original Source Article »
UK: England: Scientists in Liverpool mass Covid testing trial defend rapid tests | The Guardian.
[Wed 23 Dec 2020]
Professor says programme was very helpful, despite criticism about accuracy of lateral flow tests.
Alexandra Topping writes:
Scientists involved in the UK’s first mass Covid testing trial, in Liverpool, have vigorously defended the use of rapid-result tests, following criticism from some health experts that they are too inaccurate to be helpful.
Speaking as the first official data was released from the mass-testing pilot, Prof Louise Kenny, the head of the faculty of health and life sciences at the University of Liverpool, said some of the negative discourse around lateral flow tests (LFTs) had been “unethical”.
Government figures from the mass testing programme in Liverpool revealed earlier this month that the tests missed 30% of cases with a high viral load and half of positive cases that were detected by standard coronavirus tests.
On Wednesday, the health secretary, Matt Hancock, said 116 local areas had now signed up for community testing, calling the rapid tests “extremely effective”.
In a briefing of the Liverpool trial, academics said a quarter of the city’s half-a-million residents had been tested, with LFTs 28% of 4,901 cases since 6 November and 33% of 792 cases in the past week.
Kenny said there was no perfect test, and that “perfection should not stand in the way of the good”.
“There isn’t a magic bullet or a golden ticket, but what we do have is a very helpful, useful public health intervention,” she said.
“I think some of the discourse that we have seen in the last few weeks is really unhelpful, I would actually go as far as to say unethical and unprofessional, particularly as we are in the middle of an unprecedented public health crisis.”
Sir John Bell, regius professor of medicine at the University of Oxford, said the lateral flow tests were a “central bit of good defence” against coronavirus because they were “fast, cheap and available for repeat use”, unlike the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, which is more accurate but has to be sent to a laboratory, delaying results for days.
As many people got asymptomatic Covid-19 – current government guidance suggests a third of infected people have no symptoms – every case caught by the LFTs in mass testing was a “win”, he said.
The newly published Liverpool data said that lack of access to online information and deprivation were major factors in suppressing testing turnout. A third of the city’s areas were considered deprived, and uptake there was half the average while the number of positive cases was three times higher, said Prof Iain Buchan, executive dean at the Institute of Population Health at the University of Liverpool.
“Fear of not having enough financial support in isolation was the biggest perceived barrier for testing,” he said.
Reflecting on the trial, he said: “The bottom line here is it used a rapid low-cost test that can be carried out anywhere to pick up two-thirds of most infectious people.
“The main conclusion I would draw is trust local communities to self-organise around the smart testing approach. It’s their livelihoods and their lives at stake.”
Original Source Article »
Afghanistan: Trekking through the snow to deliver vaccines | World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office.
Volunteers, Abdul Basit and Misbahuddin in Aab-e-barik village, Argo district, Badakhshan province. Photo: Shaim Shahin/WHO Afghanistan
20 December 2020 – Vaccinators tackle winter conditions and challenging contexts during Afghanistan’s last polio campaign of the year.
On a wintery November day, vaccinators across Afghanistan wrapped up warm, checked that they had facemasks and hand sanitizer, and headed out into the cold morning. Their mission? To reach 9.9 million children with polio vaccines, before snowfall blocked their way.
From valley peaks to muddy lanes, we look at some of the environments where vaccinators work, as well as some of the key challenges that have made 2020 one of the toughest years for polio eradicators.
Uncle Arsalan Khan helping Khadija, 4 years old, to climb down the wall in Doshakh village, Rukha district of Panjshir province. Photo: Ahmadullah Amarkhil/WHO Afghanistan
For some vaccinators, the first snows had already arrived. At the top of the Panjshir valley, Ziaullah and Nawid Ahmad started their day at 7 a.m.
“We walked 6 hours to Sar-e Tangi and back to take polio drops to the last houses in the valley”, said Ziaullah. The mountainous roads in this area are impassable by car, so vaccinators walk many kilometres to the most remote villages. Sar-e Tangi means ‘top narrow edge’, and the view during the long winter is of snowy peaks.
A few kilometres from Sar-e Tangi, father Arsalan Khan was proud to have protected his own and other children in the extended family with polio drops. He said, “I have ensured all my children are vaccinated during each round the drops were offered and of course I will keep vaccinating them each time the vaccinators visit our village”.
Khan continued, “The vaccinators walk long distances across the mountain slopes to our villages, sometimes during harsh weather conditions, to bring polio drops to our doors.”
“Thanks to the people and countries that support the vaccination campaigns and make it possible for the drops to reach our doorsteps”.
Volunteers, Ziaullah and Navid Ahmad, giving polio drops to Sanaullah and Khadija. Doshakh village, Rukha district, Panjshir province. Photo: Ahmadullah Amarkhil/WHO Afghanistan
In Badakhstan, Mr Azizullah had COVID-19 safety measures on his mind. Like all vaccinators working for the polio programme, he had been trained on how to safely deliver polio drops during the pandemic. The temperature was below zero, with the first snow on the ground, as Mr. Azizullah walked through the rugged terrain from home to home, ensuring to wear his mask and regularly sanitize his hands.
Mr Abdul Basit and Misbahuddin, volunteers in nearby Aab Barik village said, “It is cold and walking through muddy lanes is not easy, but we have to do our job. There was one case of polio in Badakhshan so that means there is probably the virus circulation and we have to stop that”.
Aynaz, 3 years old. Ansari Avenue, Nahya 8, Herat City, Herat Province. Photo: Ramin Afshar/WHO Afghanistan
Mr Abdullah, a university lecturer observing vaccination activities in Herat said, “I believe a vaccinator’s job is more important than mine. I really appreciate their work and appreciate the international community for making the polio immunization operations possible in Afghanistan with their financial support.”
“I believe that all these efforts will be fruitful, hopefully soon, and we will get rid of the virus in our country”.
The November campaign was particularly aimed at boosting the immunity of unvaccinated children, and children who have not received their full vaccine doses. Many children have missed out on polio vaccines and other routine immunizations due to a pause in vaccination activities in the first few months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Health workers are now racing against time to protect the youngest children from the poliovirus.
Ms Sitara, mother of Yasameen, who was wrapped up warm against the elements, said, “I am very happy to be able to immunize my daughter and protect her against polio”.
Yasameen, 2 months old and mother Sitara, Herat province. Yasmeen lost her father recently and mother does chores around other houses to make a living. Photo: Ramin Afshar / WHO Afghanistan Jalalabad province
In the east region of Afghanistan, 8530 volunteers, 160 district coordinators and 786 cluster supervisors were hard at work, aiming to reach as many children as possible during the campaign.
Dr Akram Hussain, Polio Eradication Initiative Team Lead in the region explained, “We were not able to do house-to-house campaigns in some parts of the region. As a result many children were missed during the October vaccination campaigns”.
Despite the best efforts of vaccinators, in October, 3.4 million children nationwide missed vaccines due to factors including insecurity, the COVID-19 pandemic and vaccine mistrust. The year 2020 has seen a significant rise in polio cases and detection of the virus in the environment, and the disease is present in almost all provinces.
The programme is aiming to reach more children and tackle virus spread next year. Activities include targeted campaigns in high-risk districts, collaborating with the religious scholars from the Islamic Advisory Group to encourage vaccine uptake and communicating more effectively with communities.
The incredible contributions of the polio programme to COVID-19 response are testimony to the agility and adaptability of Afghanistan’s programme in the most difficult circumstances. Many hope that lessons learnt from this experience can be applied to achieving the eradication goal.
Ending polio requires everyone – including polio personnel, communities, parents, governments and stakeholders – to commit to overcoming challenges. As the weather turns colder and snow continues to fall, many are looking ahead to what 2021 holds for polio eradication in Afghanistan.
Original Source Article »
Twin brothers, Habib-u Rahmand and Hamid-u Rahman and their niece, showing their inked fingers after taking polio drops in Botawar village, Rukha district of Panjshir province. Photo: Ahmadullah Amarkhil/WHO Afghanistan
Afghanistan: Weekly Humanitarian Update (14 – 20 December 2020) | ReliefWeb.
[Situation Report] [Source: OCHA] [Posted: 23 Dec 2020] [Originally Published: 23 Dec 2020] [Origin: View original]
South: fighting continued in all provinces, 1,000 people displaced.
Fighting between Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and a non-state armed group (NSAG) continued in Arghandab, Zheray and Panjwayi districts of Kandahar, Nad-e-Ali, Nawa-e-Barakzaiy and Nahr-e-Saraj districts in Hilmand and Dehrawud and Gizab districts in Uruzgan and some parts of Zabul province. The presence of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and military operations restricted civilians’ movements and affected people’s access to health services.
In Kandahar province, the clashes continued in Arghandab, Zheray and Panjwayi, Arghestan, Maruf and Maywand districts. A total of 11 civilians were reportedly killed by an airstrike that hit a house in Arghandab during clashes between the ANSF and an NSAG. An investigation into the incident has been initiated.
In Hilmand province, military operations are ongoing in Lashkargah, Nad-e-Ali, Nahr-e-Saraj and Nawa-e- Barakzaiy. Civilian movement continued through the 601 highway in Hilmand province as other main roads are suspected due to the threat of IEDs. Furthermore, as it is the season for crop cultivation, the presence of IEDs is also impacting access to farms.
In Uruzgan province, clashes between ANSF and an NSAG continued in Dehrawud and Gizab districts. Reportedly, two children were wounded in armed clashes in the Sardar Kalacha area in Dehrawud district.
In Nirmroz province, fighting with sporadic armed clashes continued mainly in Khashrod district. Reportedly, 1,000 people were displaced to Zaranj district in Nirmoz from Farah, Ghor and Hilmand provinces and other contested districts within the province. In Zabul province, armed clashes were reported in Tarnak Wa Jaldak and Arghandab districts with humanitarian implications yet to be confirmed.
North-east: 63,707 people received humanitarian assistance.
Fighting between ANSF and NSAGs continued in the north-east mainly in Kunduz and Baghlan provinces. On 14 December, one civilian was reportedly killed during clashes between the ANSF and an NSAG in the Kalaw Gaw area of Kunduz city, Kunduz province.
Humanitarian assistance reached approximately 63,707 people affected by conflict in Badakhshan, Baghlan, Takhar and Kunduz provinces. Assessment teams identified 3,920 people displaced by conflict in Baghlan, Badakhshan and Takhar provinces to receive humanitarian assistance in the coming days. In Kunduz province, 35 people affected by heavy snowfall were identified to receive humanitarian assistance. Also, humanitarian partners continued to deliver winter assistance to people in need across the north-east.
East: Several health facilities across Nuristan reportedly closed.
The security situation in the east remained unstable. Since 28 November, 25 health facilities across Nuristan province were reportedly closed impacting approximately 100,000 people who are now deprived of access to basic health services. Negotiations are ongoing for the reopening of the health facilities.
Interagency assessment teams identified 12,145 people to receive immediate humanitarian assistance in the east. A total of 20,370 people received humanitarian assistance including internally displaced persons (IDPs), undocumented returnees, and people who receive food as part of seasonal support. A total of 9,354 returnees, IDPs and people from host communities were reached with emergency outpatient health services and 9,155 children were vaccinated to protect them against polio and measles.
West: 10,500 IDPs received food assistance.
The security situation remained unstable in the west. During the reporting period, approximately 10,500 people in Badghis province who were displaced by drought received food assistance as part of a seasonal support project. Need assessments are ongoing for people affected by conflict in Badghis, Farah, Ghor and Hirat provinces.
Centre: Intensified violence resulted in civilian casualties.
The security situation remained unstable in the central part of the country. On 20 December, nine people were reportedly killed and 20 others wounded by a car bomb in Kabul city. On 18 December, at least 15 civilians including 11 children were killed and over 20 others wounded in an explosion in Gelan district of Ghazni province. No group has claimed responsibility for this incident.
This week, 1,785 people received cash assistance for winter and household items in Ghazni province. Needs assessments are ongoing for vulnerable people who are in need of winter assistance in Panjsher, Paktika, Kabul and Ghazni provinces.
North: 4,900 IDPs received winter assistance in Faryab.
Armed clashes between ANSF and an NSAG continued in Balkh, Faryab, Sar-e-Pul, Jawzjan and Samangan provinces. Interagency teams verified 1,855 people displaced by conflict to receive humanitarian assistance in Balkh, Faryab, Sar-e-Pul and Jawzjan provinces. A total of 924 people affected by conflict received humanitarian assistance across the north. In addition, 1,252 people including vulnerable families from host communities, IDPs in protracted displacement and returnees from Iran received basic health assistance through mobile health teams in Faryab and Sar-e-Pul provinces. A total of 4,900 people displaced by conflict received winter support in Faryab province.
In 2020, the Afghanistan Humanitarian Fund (AHF) provided US $74.3 million to humanitarian partners though one Standard- and six Reserve Allocations. Of that amount, 77 per cent supported projects implemented by national and international NGOs. National NGO partners received 20 per cent of the total AHF funding provided, directly or as sub-implementers of UN and International NGO partners. Thanks to the continuing and generous support by its donors, including new donors such as Ireland, Luxemburg and Kazakhstan, the AHF was able to fund 135 projects that provided life-saving humanitarian aid to over 5 million people in urgent need of assistance.
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs:
To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit https://www.unocha.org/.
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ppn Selected Twitter Threads [Experimental].
Trevor Bedford, Scientist, studying viruses, evolution and immunity, writes:
Following up on general thoughts on antigenic drift of
#COVID19 from this weekend, I wanted to discuss what
we know about the new variant of SARS-CoV-2 thats
Muge Cevik , Infectious Diseases / Virology Clinician & Scientist, writes:
There are several reasons to think that the new UK
#SARSCoV2 variant is an important one as it might be
more contagious than other variants, but there are also
some uncertainties. So much misinformation is being
circulated, so this thread brings key data together.
Michael Mina, Epidemiologist, Immunologist, Physician, Harvard Public Health/Medical School, writes:
Original Source Article »
There’s been a LOT of concern about UK rapid antigen
But here, the very tweet supposed to be showing it is
failing, it shows it’s working well!!
The only missed samples were all very LOW PCR RNA -
Genomic epidemiology of coxsackievirus A16 in mainland of China, 2000–18 | Virus Evolution.
[Open Access] [Published: 09 November 2020]
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a frequently reported and concerning disease worldwide, is a severe burden on societies globally, especially in the countries of East and Southeast Asia. Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) is one of the most important causes of HFMD and a severe threat to human health, especially in children under 5 years of age. To investigate the epidemiological characteristics, spread dynamics, recombinant forms (RFs), and other features of CV-A16, we leveraged the continuous surveillance data of CV-A16-related HFMD cases collected over an 18-year period. With the advent of the EV-A71 vaccine since 2016, which targeted the EV-A71-related HFMD cases, EV-A71-related HFMD cases decreased dramatically, whereas the CV-A16-related HFMD cases showed an upward trend from 2017 to October 2019. The CV-A16 strains observed in this study were genetically related and widely distributed in the mainland of China. Our results show that three clusters (B1a–B1c) existed in the mainland of China and that the cluster of B1b dominates the diffusion of CV-A16 in China. We found that eastern China played a decisive role in seeding the diffusion of CV-A16 in China, with a more complex and variant transmission trend. Although EV-A71 vaccine was launched in China in 2016, it did not affect the genetic diversity of CV-A16, and its genetic diversity did not decline, which confirmed the epidemiological surveillance trend of CV-A16. Two discontinuous clusters (2000–13 and 2014–18) were observed in the full-length genome and arranged along the time gradient, which revealed the reason why the relative genetic diversity of CV-A16 increased and experienced more complex fluctuation model after 2014. In addition, the switch from RFs B (RF-B) and RF-C co-circulation to RF-D contributes to the prevalence of B1b cluster in China after 2008. The correlation between genotype and RFs partially explained the current prevalence of B1b. This study provides unprecedented full-length genomic sequences of CV-A16 in China, with a wider geographic distribution and a long-term time scale. The study presents valuable information about CV-A16, aimed at developing effective control strategies, as well as a call for a more robust surveillance system, especially in the Asia-Pacific region.
Original Source Article »
Primary breast cancer patient with poliomyelitis: A case report | World J Clin Cases.
[Open Access] [Received: August 7, 2020; Peer-review started: August 7, 2020; First decision: August 21, 2020; Revised: August 26, 2020; Accepted: October 20, 2020; Article in press: October 20, 2020; Published online: December 6, 2020]
Poliomyelitis is an acute infection caused by an enterovirus, which primarily infects the human gastrointestinal tract. In general, patients with polio have no association with the occurrence of cancer. The present case study presents a rare case of poliomyelitis combined with primary breast cancer.
A 61-year-old woman who was diagnosed with poliomyelitis at 5 years old and confirmed invasive breast cancer by core needle biopsy (CNB) after hospitalization. The patient received a modified radical mastectomy and four cycles of chemotherapy with the TC (docetaxel and cyclophosphamide) regimen. The patient was also prescribed endocrine therapy without radiotherapy after chemotherapy. The patient had no evidence of lymphedema in the right upper extremities and no evidence of either regression or distant metastasis at the 1-year follow-up.
The pectoral muscles of patients with polio are easily damaged in traumatic procedures, such as CNB, local anesthesia for tumor excision, and general anesthesia for surgery. A CNB, modified radical mastectomy, and four cycles of TC chemotherapy were successfully completed for the present case and the adverse reactions were found to be tolerable. This case may indicate the relationship between breast cancer and polio, and the examination and treatment methods used could be used as a guide for similar cases in the future.
Core Tip: This is the first case report on poliomyelitis combined with primary breast cancer. Due to the poliomyelitis, the pectoral muscles of patients with polio are easily damaged in traumatic procedures, such as core needle biopsy (CNB), local anesthesia for tumor excision, and general anesthesia for surgery. A CNB, modified radical mastectomy, and four cycles of TC chemotherapy were successfully completed for the present case and the adverse reactions were found to be tolerable. This case may indicate the relationship between breast cancer and polio, and the examination and treatment methods used could be used as a guide for similar cases in the future.
Original Source Article »