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An online news cutting service that specialises in news relating to polio and post-polio issues; disability and other health-related issues may also be covered.
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USA: 106 cases of polio-like illness confirmed across 29 states | Becker's Hospital Review.

[November 19, 2018]

Mackenzie Bean writes:

The CDC has confirmed 106 cases of acute flaccid myelitis across 29 states in 2018, according to CNN.

Here are four things to know:

1. The new count, which the agency released Nov. 19, marks a 16-case increase from a week prior. The agency also identified 167 possible AFM infections, up five cases from last week.

2. The CDC first identified AFM in 2014. Since then, the agency has confirmed 430 cases nationwide, 90 percent of which occurred in children.

3. The cause of AFM is still unknown. One hypothesis is that the illness is caused by the body's own immune response to an infection, according to Nancy Messonnier, MD, director of the CDC's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. "We're not ruling anything out at this point," she said during a Nov. 13 press briefing.

4. The CDC also boosted state health department funding to help physicians identify and treat patients with AFM, which includes the creation of an AFM task force made up of national experts, according to Dr. Messonnier.

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Original Source Article »

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Immunogenicity and safety following primary and booster vaccination with a hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: a randomized trial in the United States | Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.

[Pay to View Full Text] [Received 25 Jul 2018, Accepted 10 Nov 2018, Accepted author version posted online: 16 Nov 2018]

Abstract.

Combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) can further reduce the number of injections in pediatric immunization schedules of countries currently using pentavalent DTaP combination vaccines. This open-label, randomized, multicenter study (NCT02096263) conducted in the United States evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine compared with concomitant administration of DTaP-HBV-IPV and HibA or DTaP-IPV/Hib and HBV vaccines. We randomized (1:1:1) infants to receive 3-dose priming with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib boosted with DTaP+ HibB, DTaP-HBV-IPV+ HibA boosted with DTaP+ HibA, or DTaP-IPV/Hib+ HBV boosted with DTaP-IPV/Hib, at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 months of age. We enrolled and vaccinated 585 participants, 486 received a booster, and 476 completed the study. Of these, 466 participants were included in the primary and 408 in the booster according-to-protocol cohorts for immunogenicity. We demonstrated non-inferiority of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine to DTaP-HBV-IPV+ HibAco-administered vaccines in terms of geometric mean concentrations for pertussis antibodies post-primary vaccination. Post-primary vaccination, seroprotection/seropositivity rates for all vaccine antigens were similarly high between DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib (≥ 94.8%), DTaP-HBV-IPV+ HibA (≥ 98.1%) or DTaP-IPV/Hib+ HBV (≥ 97.8%) groups. We observed robust immune responses post-booster, indicating effective priming by the 3 regimens. Reactogenicity was similar in the 3 groups. Twenty-eight serious adverse events were reported during the study; 3 were considered related to vaccination and resolved by the end of the study. These results confirm that DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib could be a valuable additional source of pediatric DTaP, IPV, HBV, and Hib-containing vaccine in countries that currently use multivalent vaccines.


Original Source Article »

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Papua New guinea: No Polio case Reported In Western Highlands | Post Courier.

[November 20, 2018]

Mal Taime writes:

THE Western Highlands Province has reported no case since the outbreak of polio.

Provincial emergency operation centre said the vaccination is still continuing into round three that covers all districts in the province.

It said round three would be completed at the end of this week if there are no problems with logistics.

The centre said they do not have any problems with the vaccination. They have sufficient stock and they would end the exercise after polio free declaration is made.

Dr Lei Jie from the World Health Organisation (WHO) was in Mt Hagen since September 12 helping team Western Highlands to vaccinate children.

The centre also sends out an appeal to all parents in communities in the province to bring their children for vaccination because their safety is important.

It said they need cooperation from parents with the vaccination team and parents must take responsibility for the care of their children.


Original Source Article »

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Deep Sequencing Prompts the Modification of a Real-time RT-PCR for the Serotype-Specific Detection of Polioviruses | Journal of Virological Methods.

[Open Access] [Received 6 August 2018, Revised 12 November 2018, Accepted 12 November 2018, Available online 14 November 2018] [In Press, Accepted Manuscript]

Highlights.

* Deep sequencing distinguished poliovirus from non-polio enterovirus C (NPEV-C)

* Low rRT-PCR specificity resulted in false-positive Sabin 2 in stool with NPEV-C

* Modification of a multiplex rRT-PCR restored poliovirus serotype specificity

Abstract.

Polioviruses are members of the Enterovirus C species and asymptomatic fecal shedding allows for their transmission and persistence in a community, as well as the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses. Using three serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays, the shedding and circulation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) strains was previously investigated in a prospective cohort of MFexican children, their contacts, and nearby sewage. Subsequently, a deep sequencing approach targeting the P1 genomic region was applied to characterize OPV strains previously detected by rRT-PCR. Amplifiable RNA was obtained for sequencing from 40.3% (58/144) of stool samples and 71.4% (15/21) of sewage using nucleic acids extracted directly from primary rRT-PCR-positive specimens. Sequencing detected one or more OPV serotypes in 62.1% (36/58) of stool and 53.3% (8/15) of sewage samples. All stool and sewage samples in which poliovirus was not detected by deep sequencing contained at least one non-polio enterovirus C (NPEV-C) strain. To improve screening specificity, a modified, two-step, OPV serotype-specific multiplex rRT-PCR was evaluated. In stool specimens, the overall agreement between the original assays and the multiplex was 70.3%. By serotype, the overall agreement was 95.7% for OPV serotype-1 (S1), 65.6% for S2, and 96.1% for S3. Furthermore, most original rRT-PCR positive/multiplex rRT-PCR negative results were collected in the summer and fall months, consistent with NPEV-C circulation patterns. In conclusion, this deep sequencing approach allowed for the characterization of OPV sequences directly from clinical samples and facilitated the implementation of a more specific multiplex rRT-PCR for OPV detection and serotyping.


Original Source Article »

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More to read:

Neither Polio nor the FLDS could rattle Judge Barbara Walther, who has officially retired | San Angelo Standard-Times.
For how long do denervated muscles in children retain the ability to regenerate?: Restoration of elbow flexion and shoulder function by partial nerve transfer in a child with long-standing poliomyelitis-like paralysis | Journal of Orthopaedic Science.
Assessment of seroprevalence against poliovirus among Italian adolescents and adults | Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.
Vaccine hesitancy among mobile pastoralists in Chad: a qualitative study | International Journal for Equity in Health.
Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Correction in Poliomyelitis-Related Spinal Deformities:A Comparison between Three Types of Pelvic Instrumentations | World Neurosurgery.
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