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Pakistan: DIG wants foolproof security to polio teams | Pakistan Observer.

[September 16, 2020]

Abdul Khaliq Qureshi.

Abbottabad.

DIG Hazara Qazi Jamil ur Rehman has directed all DPOs to provide foolproof security to polio teams for the forthcoming polio campaign and asked them to be as the front line in the campaign. This he said here while presiding a high level meeting of DPO’s of eight districts of Hazara division at his office on Tuesday and also of other high ranking officers including officials of special branch and other law enforcing agencies.

All the DPO’s presented security plans of their respective districts which were shown satisfactory by the DIG Hazara and said that the programs chalked out by the respective district administrations and health officials will be implemented in full spirit.

He further directed police officials to take legal action against all those who create any kind of resistance or create trouble for the polio teams so not any outward incident to be avoided.


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Pakistan: A look into polio resurgence | DAWN.

[16 Sep 2020] Tariq Saeed Birmani writes:

DERA GHAZI KHAN: A high-level meeting also attended by representatives of global health bodies was held here on Tuesday to discuss rising polio cases in DG Khan and Rajanpur.

Dera chief executive officer (health) Dr Khalil Sikhanu told Dawn that the meeting was participated in by representatives of the World Health Organization, UNICEF, health authorities of four provinces and other stakeholders.

The surfacing of three cases in Dera Ghazi Khan and one in Rajanpur this year is `very alarming’ for local as well as national and international health organisations.These two trans-Indus districts share boundaries with Balochistan but there are some disputes over the actual provincial boundary between some tribes residing on both sides. These areas are not easily accessible.

Dr Khalil said missed spots (during the past campaign) were located in disputed hilly areas on the Punjab-Balochistan boundary and Rujhan, in Rajanpur district. He said 16 districts in the country had been declared sensitive regarding polio virus. He said the issues of missed areas, vaccination, communication, coordination and operation were discussed to launch a fresh anti-polio campaign in the 16 districts. He said it was discussed that international community could impose a bar on entry of Pakistanis into their lands if we failed in war against polio. He said the next campaign with `a new spirit’ would commence on Sept 21.


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Somalia Polio Flash Update: Week 36 2020 | ReliefWeb.

[Situation Report] [Sources: UNICEF WHO] [Posted: 16 Sep 2020] [Originally Published: 16 Sep 2020]

One case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week, with date of onset on 24 July 2020. The affected child lives in an accessible village in Danyile district, Banadir region.

This is the fourth cVDPV2 case to be reported in Somalia in 2020. The case is genetically linked to the existing cVDPV2 outbreak in the country.

Three cVDPV2 positive environmental samples were reported this week. 18 cVDPV2 positive environmental samples have been reported so far in 2020.

Planning continues for the resumption of polio immunization campaigns, which were paused across the country in light of the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. From 20 to 23 September, a mOPV2 case response, which has been postponed since March 2020, will resume with COVID-19-preventative measures in place. This house to house campaign will take place in south and central zones of Somalia, reaching 1.65 million children.


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Afghanistan: Weekly Humanitarian Update (7 – 13 September 2020) | ReliefWeb.

[Situation Report] [Source: OCHA] [Posted: 16 Sep 2020] [Originally Published: 16 Sep 2020] [Origin: View original]

North-east: 35,065 people are in need of assistance.

Fighting between Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) and a non-state armed group (NSAG) continued across the north-east. Since late August, 8,783 families (about 61,481 people) who were displaced in Khanabad and Imam Sahib districts in Kunduz province were assessed. Among them, 4,664 families (32,648 people) were identified to receive immediate humanitarian assistance. Humanitarian assistance has reached 2,675 families (18,725 people). 22 interagency assessment teams continued to assess needs on the ground in Kunduz province.

In Baghlan province, fighting reportedly killed two civilians in the Dara-e-Feroz areas of Khost Wa Fereng district and displaced 180 families (about 1,260 people) to the safer places in surrounding villages. In Takhar province, following successful negotiations between the local community and the party to the conflict, 200 families (1,400 people) returned to their place of origin in the Nahri-Ab area, Farkhar district.

This week alone, interagency assessment teams identified 1,392 families (approximately 9,744 people) displaced by conflict to receive humanitarian assistance in Badakhshan, Baghlan, Kunduz and Takhar provinces. Humanitarian assistance reached 4,627 people affected by conflict in Kunduz and Takhar provinces. In addition, 1,796 vulnerable and food-insecure people due to COVID-19 were reached with humanitarian assistance in Baghlan and Kunduz provinces.

East: Tele-education reaches 360,000 students.

The security situation remained volatile across the east mainly in Nangarhar, Laghman and Kunar provinces. On 7 September, two children were reportedly killed and three others were injured by an improvised explosive device (IED) detonation in Ghaziabad district, Kunar province.

In Nangarhar, 4,690 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) who were displaced by clashes near the border on 4 September were identified by interagency assessment teams for immediate humanitarian assistance in Muhmand Dara, Achin and Shinwar districts. Needs assessments are ongoing for 287 newly displaced people in Lalpur district, Nangarhar province. To strengthen earlier response, a humanitarian partner is assessing the additional needs of 264 families (1,848 people) affected by heavy rains and floods in Kuz Kunar and Rodat districts in Nangarhar province.

During the reporting period, interagency assessment teams identified 22,540 IDPs as being in need of immediate humanitarian assistance. This week, 12,593 people affected by conflict and natural disasters received humanitarian assistance across the east. A total of 4,554 returnees, IDPs and people from host communities were reached with emergency outpatient health services and 394 children were vaccinated for polio and measles. Humanitarian partners continued tele-education programmes reaching approximately 360,000 students and a humanitarian partner donated 600 blackboards to education departments across the east. A total of 14,363 children including 7,214 girls and 7,147 boys were reached with psychosocial services through Child-Friendly Spaces across 16 districts in the east.

North: 1,474 people received humanitarian assistance.

The security situation remained volatile, with the number of security incidents increasing slightly to 105 compared to 97 in the previous reporting period. Armed clashes intensified between ANSF and an NSAG mainly in Balkh, Faryab, Sar-e-Pul and Jawzjan provinces and resulted in the suspension of civilian movements along main roads. Civilians reportedly fled their homes due to fighting in Qaysar district to remote villages in Qaysar district and Maymana city. According to local authorities, some 1,190 families were displaced which will be verified by joint assessment teams in Maymana city. There were some delays in accessing and assessing displaced families due to ongoing fighting and security challenges, but the security situation has since improved, although sporadic fighting continued to be reported.

A total of 914 people were verified as displaced by conflict in Balkh, Faryab, Sar-e-Pul and Jawzjan provinces by interagency assessment teams and will receive assistance in the coming days. A total of 1,474 people received humanitarian assistance across the north.

South: Increased insecurity resulted in the closure of a health facility.

During the reporting period, the security situation in the south remained volatile with reports of IED detonations and hostilities between ANSF and NSAG mainly in Kandahar, Hilmand and Zabul provinces. Reportedly, three civilians were injured by a roadside IED detonation in Shah Wali Kot district, Kandahar province. Also, 3,500 people were displaced in Shah Wali Kot district and other contested districts in Kandahar city. Interagency assessment teams were deployed to assess the needs of displaced people in Kandahar. According to initial reports, a health facility was closed due to ongoing fighting in Miyanshin, Kandahar Province. The closure of this health facility deprived nearly 15,000 people of access to health services. As the hostilities between the ANSF and NSAG intensified in Dehrawud and Tirinkot district in Uruzgan province, the movements of all types of supplies have been interrupted in Chinarto district in Uruzgan province which resulted in increased food prices and may put people at risk of food insecurity. Government agencies responded to needs by airlifting 9 metric tonnes of wheat for 6,000 people and medical supplies for three months to Chinarto district.

West: 710 people who returned from Iran received humanitarian aid.

During the reporting period, the security situation continued to be tense across the west. Reportedly, two civilians were killed during clashes between the ANSF and NSAG in Badghis and Hirat provinces. According to local authorities, around 11,451 undocumented people returned to Afghanistan from Iran from 5 to 10 September of whom 710 received humanitarian assistance at the point of entry and a transit centre in Hirat city.

Centre: 4,900 people displaced in Paktya and Ghazni.

The overall security situation in the centre remained volatile and unstable. On 9 September, 10 people were killed and nearly 15 others were injured by a roadside bomb attack in Police District 4 in Kabul city. To date, no group has claimed responsibility for this attack. A total of 5,040 people affected by recent floods were identified to receive humanitarian assistance in the coming days in Parwan and Maydan Wardak provinces. According to local authorities, 4,900 people were displaced in Paktya and Ghazni provinces while 91 IDPs were provided with humanitarian assistance in Kabul province.

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs:
To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit https://www.unocha.org/.


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The sixth revolution in pediatric vaccinology: immunoengineering and delivery systems | Pediatric Research.

[Open Access] [Received 23 October 2019; Revised 08 May 2020; Accepted 28 May 2020; Published 14 September 2020]

Abstract.

Infection is the predominant cause of mortality in early life, and immunization is the most promising biomedical intervention to reduce this burden. However, very young infants fail to respond optimally to most vaccines currently in use, especially neonates. In 2005, Stanley Plotkin proposed that new delivery systems would spur a new revolution in pediatric vaccinology, just as attenuation, inactivation, cell culture of viruses, genetic engineering, and adjuvantation had done in preceding decades. Recent advances in the field of immunoengineering, which is evolving alongside vaccinology, have begun to increasingly influence vaccine formulation design. Historically, the particulate nature of materials used in many vaccine formulations was empiric, often because of the need to stabilize antigens or reduce endotoxin levels. However, present vaccine delivery systems are rationally engineered to mimic the size, shape, and surface chemistry of pathogens, and are therefore often referred to as “pathogen-like particles”. More than a decade from his original assessment, we re-assess Plotkin’s prediction. In addition, we highlight how immunoengineering and advanced delivery systems may be uniquely capable of enhancing vaccine responses in vulnerable populations, such as infants.

Impact.

  • Immunoengineering and advanced delivery systems are leading to new developments in pediatric vaccinology.

  • Summarizes delivery systems currently in use and development, and prospects for the future.

  • Broad overview of immunoengineering’s impact on vaccinology, catering to Pediatric Clinicians and Immunologists.


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