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Assessing the Risk of Vaccine-derived Outbreaks After Reintroduction of Oral Poliovirus Vaccine in Postcessation Settings | Clinical Infectious Diseases.

[Open Access] [Published: 30 October 2018]

Abstract.

Background.

The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013–2018 calls for the gradual withdrawal of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) from routine immunization. We aimed to quantify the transmission potential of Sabin strains from OPV when it is reintroduced, accidentally or deliberately, in a community vaccinated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine alone.

Methods.

We built an individual-based stochastic epidemiological model that allows independent spread of 3 Sabin serotypes and differential transmission rates within versus between households. Model parameters were estimated by fitting to data from a prospective cohort in Mexico. We calculated the effective reproductive number for the Mexico cohort and simulated scenarios of Sabin strain resurgence under postcessation conditions, projecting the risk of prolonged circulation, which could lead to circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV).

Results.

The estimated effective reproductive number for naturally infected individuals was about 1 for Sabin 2 and Sabin 3 (OPV2 and OPV3) in a postcessation setting. Most transmission events occurred between households. We estimated the probability of circulation for >9 months to be (1) <<1% for all 3 serotypes when 90% of children <5 years of age were vaccinated in a hypothetical outbreak control campaign; (2) 45% and 24% for Sabin 2 and Sabin 3, respectively, when vaccine coverage dropped to 10%; (3) 37% and 8% for Sabin 2 and Sabin 3, respectively, when a single active shedder appeared in a community.

Conclusions.

Critical factors determining the risk of cVDPV emergence are the scale at which OPV is reintroduced and the between-household transmission rate for poliovirus, with intermediate values posing the greatest risk.


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Nigeria: Polio - Who Urges FCT Traditional Rulers On Awareness | Daily Trust via allAfrica.

[5 NOVEMBER 2018]

Abubakar Sadiq Isah writes:

The FCT coordinator of the World Health Organization (WHO), Dr. Furera Zakari, has called on traditional rulers in the area councils to enlighten their subjects to present their children for vaccination during immunisation exercises.

Dr. Zakari, who made the call while speaking with newsmen in Abuja on Saturday, emphasised the need for children to be immunised against the polio virus to secure their future.

She said the immunisation exercise, which took off on November 3 to end on the 6th, was to ensure children were vaccinated for protection and eradication of the virus in the country.

She noted that polio was a debilitating disease caused by a virus that mainly affects children under five years of age.

"So I want to appeal to parents to present their children for immunisation and if the vaccine does not get to them, they should report to the nearest local government, "she said.

She explained that the polio vaccine was accessible to the masses even in remote locations due to the efforts of the World Health Organisation (WHO).

"The only thing is for the parents to be convinced that the vaccine is necessary to save their children's future," she added.

She said the primary healthcare coordinators in the area councils were also committed to educating parents on the importance of polio immunisation in rural communities.

The coordinator, further urged parents and caregivers in the FCT to always see immunisation as the only way to completely eradicate the polio virus in the country.


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Papua New Guinea: This is Gafo | GPEI

[05/11/2018]

Papua New Guinea's first polio case in decades is a champion for eradication.

Gafo is the first case of polio in Papua New Guinea in almost two decades. WHO PNG/J.Rivaca

For six-year old Gafo that fateful April 2018 morning was supposed to be the start of just another day full of running around and playing with friends. Ignoring the pain in his legs, Gafo tried to get out of bed, but he fell and struggled to get back up. Over the course of the next two days, Gafo’s condition continued to deteriorate. On the third day, Gafo and his family visited the Angau Memorial General Hospital in Lae, Morobe, in the central northern coast of Papua New Guinea, only to find out that he had polio.

As soon as Gafo’s story broke, a National Emergency was declared by the Government and a mass polio vaccination campaign was initiated. Gafo became the foremost champion of polio awareness, and served as a cautionary tale for families and young children to get vaccinated.

Since his diagnosis, Gafo has made progress. Though he can now walk with his signature gait, Gafo and his parents understand that polio is irreversible, but is preventable and eradicable. Gafo hopes to become a doctor one day. Read about his entire journey from being an ordinary child to breaking news, and how his story has helped contain polio in Papua New Guinea.

This story is originally from the Papua New Guinea Polio Outbreak Response First 100 Days report.


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Persistence of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and poliovirus types I, II, and III following immunization with DTaP combined with inactivated wild-type polio vaccine (DTaP-wIPV) | Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases.

[Open Access] [Received: July 23, 2018; Accepted: September 20, 2018; [Advance Publication] Released: October 31, 2018]

Abstract.

A follow-up serological study was conducted involving 47 subjects who received four doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) together with Salk-type inactivated polio vaccine (DTaP-wIPV) until 6 years of age. All antibody levels declined more rapidly than expected within 3 years after the completion of the primary vaccination with 4th booster dose and titers persisted until 6 years of age. The positive rate of the IgG antibody against pertussis toxin (PT) was 31.9% (15/47) at 4 years of age, 41.0% (16/39) at 5 years of age, and 40.5% (15/37) at 6 years of age. A significant increase in the PT antibody was observed in 6 subjects, suggesting subclinical infection. Positive rates of antibodies against other targets did not decrease but titers of neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus type III decreased in only a few subjects. These data suggest the need for an additional preschool booster immunization using DTaP-wIPV.


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US doctors criticise CDC’s response to “mystery” polio-like disease in children | The BMJ.

[Pay to View Full Text] [Published 01 November 2018]

An unexplained polio-like illness that spikes in frequency every second year seems to be on course for a new record number of cases.

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) first publicised its concern about acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) two weeks ago, since which time the number of cases reported this year has climbed from 127 (62 confirmed) to 191 (72 confirmed).1 Cases have been confirmed in 24 states.

Canada also last week reported a sudden September spike in cases, raising the year’s total from fewer than five reported cases to 30.

Meanwhile, several doctors treating the disease, including four who advise the CDC on it, have criticised the agency’s response and its use of the word “mystery,” arguing that the evidence is enough to at least work …


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