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The effect of maternal poliovirus antibodies on the immune responses of infants to poliovirus vaccines | BMC Infectious Diseases.

[Open Access] [Received 18 February 2020; Accepted 16 August 2020; Published 31 August 2020]

Abstract.

Background.

Maternal poliovirus antibodies could provide passive immunity to the newborns from poliovirus infection during their first few months of life, but they may impair the immune responses of infants to the poliovirus vaccine as well. In our study, we pooled the data from three clinical trials of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) based on Sabin strains to investigate the effect of maternal poliovirus antibodies on the immune responses of infants to poliovirus vaccines.

Methods.

There were five groups in the pooled analysis, including low-dose Sabin IPV, medium-dose Sabin IPV, high-dose Sabin IPV, control Sabin IPV, and control Salk IPV groups. We reclassified the infants in different groups according to their maternal poliovirus antibodies by two methods, the first one included maternal antibody negative (< 1:8) and maternal antibody positive (≥1:8), and the second one included maternal antibody titer < 1:8, 1:8 ~ < 1:32 and ≥ 1:32. Then, we compared the geometric mean titers (GMTs), geometric mean antibody fold increases (GMIs) and seroconversion rates of poliovirus type-specific neutralizing antibodies after vaccination among participants with different maternal poliovirus antibody levels.

Results.

The GMTs and GMIs of three types of poliovirus antibodies after vaccination in maternal antibody negative participants were significantly higher than those in maternal antibody positive participants. The seroconversion rates of type II and type III poliovirus antibodies in maternal antibody positive participants were significantly lower than those in maternal antibody negative participants. Among participants with maternal antibody titer < 1:8, 1:8 ~ < 1:32 and ≥ 1:32, the GMTs and GMIs of three types of poliovirus antibodies after vaccination showed a tendency to decline with the increasing of maternal antibody levels. The seroconversion rates of three types of poliovirus antibodies in participants with maternal antibody titer ≥1:32 were significantly lower than those in participants with maternal antibody titer < 1:8 and 1:8 ~ < 1:32.

Conclusions.

Maternal poliovirus antibodies interfered with the immune responses of infants to poliovirus vaccines, and a high level of maternal antibodies exhibited a greater dampening effect.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.govNCT04264598 February 11, 2020; ClinicalTrials.govNCT04264546 February 11, 2020; ClinicalTrials.govNCT03902054 April 3, 2019. Retrospectively registered.


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The risk of unintentional propagation of poliovirus can be minimized by using human cell lines lacking the functional CD155 gene | Microbiology and Immunology.

[Pay to View Full Text] [Accepted manuscript online: 09 September 2020]

Abstract.

After eradication and containment of wild poliovirus (PV) and cessation of oral polio vaccinations, it is critical to minimize the risk of reintroducing PV into PV‐free communities via facilities that handle the virus. The potential risk of unintentional PV propagation through unidentified contaminated materials is a serious issue. This study reports the generation of HeLa and RD‐A cells deficient in functional CD155 gene (∆PVR cells); these cells are not susceptible to PV but remain susceptible to other picornaviruses. These ∆PVR cells will minimize the risk of unintentional transmission of PV and support performing the experiments more safely.


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Polio – The old foe and new challenges: An update for clinicians | Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health.

[Pay to View Full Text] [Manuscript received: 19 April 2020; Manuscript revised: 22 July 2020; Manuscript accepted: 08 August 2020; Version of Record online: 09 September 2020]

Abstract.

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative since 1988 has seen the impact of poliovirus decline from frequent global epidemics in the early 1900s to being now only endemic in two countries today. Global vaccination programmes and surveillance for the disease have resulted in the landmark eradication of two of the three poliovirus strains in the last 5 years. Australia continues to contribute to global surveillance efforts for the disease via the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit and the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance Network, which aim to detect cases of acute flaccid paralysis in children, the key clinical feature of poliomyelitis. Today, in the era of the polio ‘endgame’, there is growing recognition of non‐polio enteroviruses causing paralytic diseases that are polio‐like, particularly in children, with an increased need for awareness and vigilance by paediatric clinicians.


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UK: Moonshot: five key points from No 10’s leaked coronavirus testing plan | The Guardian.

[Thu 10 Sep 2020 18.03 BST]

For once, Boris Johnson is right to invest in on-demand #rapid #testing for infectious SARSCoV2 in a COVIID19 asymptomatic population, but he needs to remove laboratories from the equation. Sage also must start thinking outside the box. https://www.rapidtests.org/ Chris Salter, Post-Polio News editor.

Covid-19 testing at Edinburgh Airport.

Covid-19 testing at Edinburgh Airport. The leaked document indicates that the government plans to increase testing 50-fold in six months. Photograph: Murdo MacLeod/The Guardian

Robert Booth, Social affairs correspondent, writes:

Operation Moonshot – the government’s bid to accelerate testing from around 200,000 a day to 10m a day by early 2021 – was met with derision by Labour MPs in the House of Commons on Thursday when the health and care secretary Matt Hancock set out the scale of the ambition. They were “naysayers”, Hancock responded. “They would do far better to support their constituents and get with the programme.”

Here are five key parts of that programme as revealed in the leaked official documents obtained by the British Medical Journal and the Guardian.

[Continue reading in source article]


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Philippines: DOH gears up for 2nd round of anti-polio drive in C. Luzon | Philippine News Agency.

[September 10, 2020, 4:21 pm]

ANTI-POLIO DRIVE. The second round of Sabayang Patak Kontra Polio (SPKP) drive in Central Luzon will be held on September 14 to 27, 2020. The campaign aims to stop the transmission of the poliovirus type 2 outbreak by giving doses of Monovalent Oral Poliovirus Type 2 (mOPV2) to all children under five years of age, (0-59 months), regardless of immunization status. (Image by DOH-CLCHD)

Zorayda Tecson writes:

CITY OF SAN FERNANDO, Pampanga – The Department of Health Central Luzon Center for Health Development (DOH CLCHD) on Thursday said it is gearing up for the second round of the Sabayang Patak Kontra Polio (SPKP) campaign in the region.

In coordination with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund, the SPKP campaign will be conducted in Central Luzon from Sept. 14-27, with a target of at least 95-percent coverage translated to 1,347,005 children in the region.

The campaign aims to stop the transmission of the poliovirus type 2 outbreak by giving doses of Monovalent Oral Poliovirus Type 2 (mOPV2) to all children under five years of age, (0-59 months), regardless of immunization status.

DOH-Central Luzon regional head Cessar Cassion appealed for the participation of parents/caregivers, health workers, barangay officials, and local government units in the implementation of a quality campaign to successfully end the polio outbreak.

“Vaccination is the best way to prevent polio and its transmission. Sustained synchronized efforts of all must be ensured,” Cassion said in a statement.

During the campaign, house-to-house vaccinations will be conducted with strict adherence to minimum health standards to prevent the transmission of coronavirus disease (Covid-19).

For the first round of SPKP, Central Luzon had coverage of 81.66 percent, vaccinating 1,093,317 children.

Cassion said the DOH is working closely with the local government units and stakeholders in preparation for the second round of the campaign, addressing the special challenges posed by the Covid-19 pandemic, such as those missed children, and those who were deferred and refused vaccination during the Round 1.

Polio is a highly contagious disease transmitted through the fecal-oral route.

It is caused by the poliovirus and may result in life-long paralysis and even death.

Unlike Covid-19, polio has a vaccine that is free, safe, and effective.

“There is no cure for polio. It can only be prevented with complete doses of polio vaccines through routine immunizations,” Cassion said. (PNA)


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