Victoria Transport Policy Institute
"Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"

Winter 2022 Vol. 22, No. 1


New Publications

The Road Forward: Cost-Effective Policy Measures to Decrease Emissions from Passenger Land Transport, by Michael W. Mehaffy, Jorge Rogat, Todd Litman, Begonia Gutierrez Figueroa and Talat Munshi, published by the Centre for the Future of Places and the UN Environment Programme Copenhagen Climate Centre, in association with Sustasis Press. Hard-copies can be ordered through Amazon Books.

Summary: Many communities are searching for practical ways to reduce climate change emissions that also help achieve other environmental, social and economic goals. Luckily, many cost-effective solutions do exist. This free 165-page book provides practical guidance for identifying, evaluating and implementing transportation emission reduction strategies that suit the needs of each particular community. These strategies help mitigate climate change and also improve air and water quality, increase social equity and economic opportunity, promote human health and wellbeing, enhance community liveability and quality of life, provide savings to households, businesses and governments, and help support local businesses: there is something for everybody.

Resilience Matters: Opportunities for Action to Strengthen Communities
This free book is a compilation of articles, op-eds, and interviews from the Island Press Urban Resilience Project including Todd Litman's Pneumatic Tube Trains and AVs to the Rescue? Smarter Planning for New Mobility. "New mobility modes and services have tantalizing potential, but they can also impose significant costs and risks. We need objective and comprehensive analysis to determine how – and how not – to incorporate these new technologies."

Learning from Montreal: An Affordable and Inclusive City (Leçons de Montréal : une ville abordable et inclusive)
Montreal, Canada is beautiful, inclusive and economically successful, but also very affordable, with housing prices 20% to 40% lower than peers cities. This results from local development policies which allow compact, lower-cost housing types – multiplexes, townhouses and low-rise apartments – on most residential land. In contrast, most North American cities discriminate against lower-cost housing types, forcing them into less desirable locations. Other cities can learn from Montreal to become une ville abordable et inclusive (an affordable and inclusive city).

Labor Perspective on Smart Growth 
Smart Growth development policies create more affordable housing in compact, multimodal neighborhoods. This report examines how this helps achieve workers and labor organizations’ goals including better employment opportunities, more union jobs, increased household affordability, shorter commute duration, more economic opportunity for disadvantaged residents, local economic development, public health and safety, plus improved community livability and environmental quality. Working families and unions have good reasons to support Smart Growth.

The Future of Transportation Is More Multimodal
Here is a terrific review by Diane Jones Allen of my book, New Mobilities: Smart Planning for Emerging Transportation Technologies, published in The Dirt, the journal of the American Association of Landscape Architects. It is interesting to see how landscape architects think about these issues. She emphasizes transportation and land use planning interactions, and highlights the importance of reforming policies to create more diverse and efficient transportation systems.

Published Elsewhere

Evaluating Transportation Equity: ITE Quickbite
This short (3-page) report, written by Todd Litman and published by the Institute of Transportation Engineers, describes why and how practitioners can incorporate equity objectives into transportation planning. It summarizes a detailed VTPI report.

Transportation for Mental Health and Happiness: ITE Quickbite
This short (2-page) report, by Todd Litman describes why and how practitioners can incorporate mental health and happiness objectives into transportation planning. It summarizes a detailed VTPI report, Urban Sanity: Understanding Urban Mental Health Impacts and How to Create Saner, Happier Cities.

The Lifetime Cost of Driving a Car
This article by Stefan Gössling, Jessica Kees and Todd Litman, published in Ecological Economics, describes 23 private and ten social cost of car ownership and use, and estimates their lifetime totals. It is summarized in a Forbes Magazine article, Lifetime Cost Of Small Car $689,000; Society Subsidizes This Ownership With $275,000.

New Mobilities: Smart Planning for Emerging Transportation Technologies and Services. Video of Todd Litman's keynote address at the University of Massachusetts' 2021 Moving Together Conference, held 8 December 2021.

Sustainable Rural Transportation Panel Video, from McGill  University Sustainability Research Symposium, "Transportation: On the Fronts of Sustainability, Access, and Planning, held 11 February 2022. Todd Litman's presentation, "Transportation: On the Fronts of Sustainability, Access, and Planning," summarized the VTPI report, Rural Multimodal Planning.

Planetizen Columns

Urban Villages for the Proletariat. Compact, walkable urban villages benefit working families and organized labor by creating jobs, improving household affordability, reducing commute duration, improving economic opportunities, and creating cleaner, healthier communities.

Urban Villages: The Key to Sustainable Community Economic Development. Compact, walkable urban villages support sustainable economic development by reducing transportation costs, leaving residents with more money to spend on local goods, and by creating more efficient and attractive commercial districts.

Equity Plus: Toward More Integrated Solutions. Many transportation equity strategies only address a small portion of the need. To be more effective, we need structural reforms that create more diverse and affordable transportation systems and more compact and multimodal communities.

Upcoming Events

Vehicle Miles Traveled As a Measure of Sustainability – ITE Webinar, 7 April 2022, 3:00 EDT (noon Pacific Time Zone), with panelists Erik Ruehr, Krista Purser, Keith Hall, Ron Milam, Todd Litman and Dan Hardy.
In the past, transportation assumed that the goal was to maximize vehicle travel speeds and distances. A new paradigm recognizes that the ultimate goal is to maximize accessibility and minimize vehicle travel distances. This webinar explores the reasons for this change, the analytical tools developed to analyze and mitigate vehicle travel, and how these concepts are being applied in California to create a more sustainable future.

2022 Global Symposium on Connected and Automated Vehicles & Infrastructure, April 12th and 13th. This event will discuss cybersecurity, infrastructure, shared mobility, and more. Todd Litman will participate in the panel, Transportation Equity Through the Lens of Shared Mobility, which will explore how new mobility services and technologies may support or contradict social equity goals.

University of Florida Transportation Institute (UFTI) Transportation Equity Certification Program
Transportation Equity II: Equity and Accessibility-based Approach
. This course examines how to incorporate equity goals while transitioning from mobility-based to accessibility-based transportation planning. It helps practitioners develop practical methods for evaluating and applying equity analysis to help ensure that our transportation system serves diverse users.
Mehri “Mehrsa” Mohebbi, Ph.D., UFTI Transportation Equity Program Director.
Todd Litman - Executive Director at VTPI
Session 1:  | April 15, 2022 | 1:30 pm - 5:30 pm | Eastern Time
Session 2:  | April 22, 2022 | 10:30 pm - 5:30 pm | Eastern 
PDHs: 8.0
Fees: $500 (regular fee) or $400 (ITE member)

Useful Resources

Transport Strategies for Net-Zero Systems by Design. This study applies the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) well-being lens to transport It identifies three dynamics that contribute to car dependency and high emissions -- induced demand, urban sprawl and the erosion of active and shared transport modes -- and provides policy recommendations to correct them.
Parking Policy Playbook, by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. This is a new, comprehensive resource for parking planning and management.
Better Urban Mobility Playbook, by the International Association of Public Transport. Provides guidance for decision makers to build better urban mobility and create more inclusive, resilient and sustainable cities. Includes information on new planning goals and strategies, including emphasis towards healthy living, prioritising active mobility, improving public spaces to meet resident's needs, and restricting private transport, and new technologies. 
15-Minute Neighborhoods: Meeting the Needs of Babies, Toddlers, and Caregivers, by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy. Infographic describes how to create healthy, safe and convenient neighborhoods for everybody, including babies, toddlers and their caregivers. It is a new installment in the Access for All series, which identifies ways to help diverse groups meet their unique needs.

Building Up the "Zoning Buffer": Using Broad Upzones to Increase Housing Capacity Without Increasing Land Values,  by Shane Phillips. New research helps explain why urban housing prices are escalating and how communities can increase affordability. It emphasizes the need to upzone sufficient urban land to create a large competitive market for parcels ready for infill development.
D.C.’s “Parking Cash-Out” Law: Your Choices Impact Employees, by Action Figure Software. Washington D.C.’s new Transportation Benefits Equity Amendment Act of 2020, requires that employers who provide a parking benefit for employees must now provide them the same market value in  benefits to workers who commute by other modes. Also see D.C. ‘Parking Cash Out’ Law Makes Employers Refund Workers Who Don’t Drive

Portland Acts on Climate, Equity with Parking Fee, by the Natural Resources Defense Council. The city of Portland, Oregon recently passed a resolution to increase parking rates to start capturing the true cost of driving and fund more resource-efficient transportation options.

Streetsmart is a non-profit research synthesis and resource clearinghouse for integrating climate protection, public health, and equity into transportation. 
Streets That Fit: Re-allocating Space for Better Cities,  by the International Transport Forum. This new ITF report describes how to measure the space consumption of different modes, and why and how to reallocate street space for efficiency and equity.  
The Dawn Project strives to ban unsafe software from safety critical systems. Its first campaign is targeting Tesla full self-driving cars. The Project analyzed videos made by Tesla users and found that the latest version of its Full Self-Driving software would fail most standard driving tests, with about one minor error every three minutes, and one critical error (major errors, such as failing to avoid a crash risk, disobeying a traffic sign, signal or safety instructions) every ten minutes. Our report, Autonomous Vehicle Implementation Predictions: Implications for Transport Planning, is updated to incorporate this and other emerging autonomous vehicle risk research.
Road Safety in Cities: Street Design and Traffic Management Solutions, by the International Transport Forum. This booklet describes ways to reduce traffic deaths and injuries in cities. Measures are illustrated with examples reported by cities collaborating in the ITF Safer City Streets network and include information on cost and effectiveness. For more information see the ITF Safer City Streets Page.
Fewer Cars, Less Traffic, Less pollution? Yes, Please!. This Amnesty International campaign describes why transportation policy is a human rights issue, and asks governments to reduce automobile travel.
Sustainable Urbanism: Riverfront greenway planning from tradition to innovation, by Carlos J. L. Balsas This article analyzes riverfront greenway planning in Central Arizona and Central Portugal, and how practitioners can work with local communities to identify and implement more appropriate design.

Todd Litman (
Victoria Transport Policy Institute (
Mobile: 250-508-5150
Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, CANADA
Efficiency – Equity – Clarity

Want to change how you receive these emails?
You can update your preferences or unsubscribe from this list.