Victoria Transport Policy Institute
"Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"

Summer 2022 Vol. 22, No. 3


New Publications

Fair Share Transportation Planning: Estimating Non-Auto Travel Demands and Optimal Infrastructure Investments
Communities have two transportation systems: an automobile-oriented system that includes higher-speed roads and parking facilities, plus a non-auto system that includes sidewalks, paths, lower-speed roads, and public transit services. Planning decisions often involve trade-offs between them. This study evaluates non-auto travel demands, that is, the amount that travelers want to walk, bicycle and use public transit, and describes how planning should serve them. It estimates that in a typical North American community 20% to 40% of travelers cannot, should not or prefer not to drive and will use non-auto modes if they are convenient, comfortable and affordable. This is higher than indicated by commonly-cited statistics, and much higher than the portion of transportation investments currently devoted to non-auto modes. It concludes that to be efficient and equitable, planning should invest in non-auto modes at least as much as their potential mode shares, and more to correct for a century of underinvestment and help achieve strategic goals such as social equity, public health and environmental protection.

Comprehensive Parking Supply, Cost and Pricing Analysis
Parking facilities are a critical part of a transportation system. They impose significant economic, social and environmental costs. This report describes how to estimate the number of parking spaces that exist in an area, their full costs and their optimal pricing. Recent surveys indicate that North American communities typically have more than five parking spaces per vehicle, including many seldom-used government-mandated spaces. Overall, their costs are estimated to average about $1,000 annually per space or $5,000 per vehicle-year, totaling more than a trillion dollars in the U.S. during 2022. For every dollar motorists spend on vehicles somebody spends about a dollar on vehicle parking. Most parking costs are external, resulting in higher taxes, rents, and retail prices, plus lower wages. More efficient parking management could provide larger savings and benefits than previously recognized.

Published Elsewhere

Todd Litman was highlighted (pages 22 and 37-38) in the Canadian Institute of Transportation Engineer's Transportation Talk newsletter. This will hopefully inspire young professionals to pursue careers that they love.

The New Mobilities: Implications for Transportation and Parking,” by Todd Litman, in the September, Parking and Mobility Magazine. “This article discusses how they are likely to affect future transportation and parking, and how industry can minimize their risks and maximize their benefits. Much of the information in this article is from the book, New Mobilities: Smart Planning for Emerging Transportation Technologies."
Preparing for the New Mobilities,” chapter in Intersections + Identities: A Radical Rethinking of our Transportation Experiences, the American Planning Association's 2022 State of Transportation Planning Report. Also see the podcast “Critical Conversations in Transportation Planning” podcast and webinar.
"Transport Projects and Equity" by Todd Litman in the panel discussion, "How to Include Sustainable Development Issues in Investment Choices,” at the Decarbonising Mobility - The Future of Transport Infrastructure Financing Conference, held February 2022. This presentation emphasized the value of improving affordable and resource-efficient travel options. It pointed out, "A transport system would not be sustainable if it reduced the environmental impact without being fair, or without supporting the economy. It is all a question of balance."

Planetizen Columns

Cool Planning for a Hotter Future. Global warming increases the importance of designing buildings and communities that are comfortable, efficient, and safe in hot conditions.

The Business Case for Multimodal Transportation Planning. Travel demands are changing and so should planning. There are good reasons for communities to spend less on automobile facilities and more on walking, bicycling, and public transit. Let’s examine why.

Upcoming Events

Transportation Equity Fundamentals

The Transportation Institute at the University of Florida's Transportation Equity Fundamentals program is designed to provide transportation practitioners with knowledge on how they can use equity principles in their day-to-day work. Each training is an 8-hour-live online course. Participants collaborate in interactive exercises. A Transportation Equity Certification is awarded to participants who take Fundamentals I and II courses.

This course is offered virtually on the following dates:
Transportation Equity Fundamentals II:
October 06 & 07, 2022 | 1:00 pm – 5:30 pm | Eastern Time

Transportation Equity Fundamentals I:
October 24 & 25, 2022 | 1:00 pm – 5:30 pm | Eastern Time

Useful Resources

Homelessness is a Housing Problem by researchers Clayton Page Aldern and Gregg Colburn identifies factors that affect homelessness rates. Describing their research, Colburn explained, “Pretty soon it became very clear that rental costs and vacancy rates were by far the biggest predictor of rates of homelessness in a community. It’s not the only factor. There are all sorts of complicated phenomenon, but it’s a far more convincing phenomenon than anything else.”
Move that Bus! Tactics for Transforming Transit in Two Years, by the National Association of City Transportation Officials, describes best practices for quickly improving bus transit services, with successful case studies.
Broadening Transport Appraisal: Summary and Conclusions, by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This report examines what ongoing shifts in the objectives of transport policy mean for transport project appraisal and planning processes. 
Car Dependency Starts in the Parking Lot, by Kittelson and  Associates, recognizes that many transportation patterns originate not on the roadway, but in the parking lot.
National Parking Management Guidance, by Waka Kotahi, the New Zealand Transport Agency, provides guidance on best practice management of public parking, including on-street parking and publicly owned/managed off-street facilities.

How to Talk About Urban Mobility and Transport Shift: A Short Guide, by Waka Kotahi, the New Zealand Transport Agency, is designed for technical experts, communicators and advocates working to deliver urban mobility solutions that grow the share of travel by public transport, walking and cycling.

The Road to Sustainable Car Mobility Policy infographic by economist Victor Nielsen explains the costs and benefits of cars, how to optimize pricing and investments.
Access and Persons with Disabilities in Urban Areas, by the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy and World Enabled, explores urban mobility through the lens of people with disabilities and offer a set of recommendations to promote responsive actions.
Congestion Pricing Matchmaker: Which Tolling Scenario Is Right For You?, by Dave Colon, analyzes who benefits and pays from various decongestion pricing systems.
Addressing Transportation and Inflation is a Climate Solution, webinar by America Walks examines the intersections between inflation hikes, rising temperatures, and the auto-dependency. How can communities deal with these interrelated issues?
Sustainable transportation advocates will be pleased to see that new King Charles III has a long history of supporting walkable community planning. The report, Walkability and Mixed Use - Making Valuable and Healthy Communities, is an example of the excellent resources produced by his foundation.

Todd Litman (
Victoria Transport Policy Institute (
Mobile: 250-508-5150
Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, CANADA
Efficiency – Equity – Clarity

Want to change how you receive these emails?
You can update your preferences or unsubscribe from this list.