Stress and sexual reproduction affect the dynamics of the wheat pathogen effector AvrStb6 and strobilurin resistance
Host resistance and fungicide treatments are cornerstones of plant-disease control. Here, we show that these treatments allow sex and modulate parenthood in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.
Absence of warmth permits epigenetic memory of winter in Arabidopsis
Plants integrate widely fluctuating temperatures to monitor seasonal progression. Here, we investigate the temperature signals in field conditions that result in vernalisation, the mechanism by which flowering is aligned with spring.
The rate and potential relevance of new mutations in a colonizing plant lineage
North America has been colonized in historic times by the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and although multiple intercrossing lineages are found today, many of the individuals belong to a single lineage, HPG1. To determine in this lineage the rate of substitutions—the subset of mutations that survived natural selection and drift–, we have sequenced genomes from plants collected between 1863 and 2006. We identified 73 modern and 27 herbarium specimens that belonged to HPG1. Using the estimated substitution rate, we infer that the last common HPG1 ancestor lived in the early 17th century, when it was most likely introduced by chance from Europe.
Adaptation in plant genomes: Bigger is different
We propose that genome size may play a previously under-appreciated role in determining how plants adapt. Rather than focus on the mechanisms of genome size variation or the adaptive significance of genome size itself, our functional space hypothesis predicts that interspecific differences in genome size may affect the process of adaptation by changing the number and location of potentially functional mutations.
The Aquilegia genome: adaptive radiation and an extraordinarily polymorphic chromosome with a unique history
The columbine genus Aquilegia is a classic example of an adaptive radiation, involving a wide variety of pollinators and habitats. Here we present the genome assembly of A. coerulea "Goldsmith", complemented by high-coverage sequencing data from 10 wild species covering the world-wide distribution.
Constructing a broadly inclusive seed plant phylogeny
This study demonstrates a means for combining available resources to construct a dated phylogeny for plants. However, this approach is an early step and more developments are needed to add data, better incorporating underlying uncertainty, and improve resolution. The methods discussed here can also be applied to other major clades in the tree of life.
TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 Regulates Inflorescence Architecture and Development in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
We show that TB1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T1, and that increased dosage of TB1 alters inflorescence architecture and growth rate in a process that includes reduced expression of meristem identity genes, with allelic diversity for TB1 found to associate genetically with paired spikelet development in modern cultivars. We propose TB1 coordinates formation of axillary spikelets during the vegetative to floral transition, and that alleles known to modify dosage or function of TB1 could help increase wheat yields.
The Plant Cell
Species turnover promotes the importance of bee diversity for crop pollination at regional scales
Winfree et al. looked across more than 3000 square kilometers for relationships between biodiversity and crop pollination (see the Perspective by Kremen). The number of wild bee species required for successful pollination rapidly increased with spatial scale, largely owing to variation in the species present across sites and the degree to which the most abundant species played a role. In the end, more than an order of magnitude more species than predicted by smaller-scale experiments were required for full ecosystem functioning.
Impact of genetically engineered maize on agronomic, environmental and toxicological traits: a meta-analysis of 21 years of field data
This meta-analysis aimed at increasing knowledge on agronomic, environmental and toxicological traits of GE maize by analyzing the peer-reviewed literature (from 1996 to 2016) on yield, grain quality, non-target organisms (NTOs), target organisms (TOs) and soil biomass decomposition.
Targeted DNA demethylation of the Arabidopsis genome using the human TET1 catalytic domain
In this study, we develop tools to target DNA demethylation in plants. We report efficient on-target demethylation and minimal effects on global methylation patterns, and show that in one case, targeted demethylation is heritable. These tools can be used to approach basic questions about DNA methylation biology, as well as to develop new biotechnology strategies to modify gene expression and create new plant trait epialleles.