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PCLG Digest 

June and July 2019 (Edition one)

Because we have so much to share with you this month, this first edition of the June and July PCLG digest features 28 new resources. You’ll receive the second edition on the 8th of August (in a week), so get reading! The next edition will feature titles on governance, equity and justice, illegal wildlife trade and the social impacts of PAs.
 
How do you feel about your life in conservation? Tell the Interdisciplinary Centre for Conservation Science  your experiences through their life in conservation survey (takes approx. 8 minutes). The University of Cambridge and IUCN are also looking for survey responses for their project ‘Developing a new Post 2020 Convention on Biodiversity Protected and Conserved Areas Target’.
 
And, the POLLEN 2020 conference - Contested Natures: Power, Possibility, Prefiguration - has a call for proposals for organised conference sessions, deadline 31st October. Also, do you work on cultural ecosystem services in the Global South? The Thematic Group on Cultural Practices and Ecosystem Management looking for a special issue of a targeted journal, apply by 15th August.
 
- Olivia and Francesca (pclg@iied.org)

In this issue

Featured publications - PCLG's top reads this month!

1. Chaigneau T, et al (2019) Money, use and experience: Identifying the mechanisms through which ecosystem services contribute to wellbeing in coastal Kenya and Mozambique. Ecosystem Services. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2019.100957 (Open access)

This paper aims to understand the mechanisms through which ecosystem services contribute to wellbeing, using 8 sites in Mozambique and Kenya. The results highlight three types of mechanisms through which ecosystem services contribute to wellbeing: monetary, use and experience. The authors discuss how consideration of these mechanisms can inform the development of interventions that aim to protect or improve flows of benefits to people.
 
2. Roe D (2019) Biodiversity loss—more than an environmental emergency. The Lancet. DOI:
10.1016/S2542-5196(19)30113-5 (Open access)
 
The author argues that, in 2020, biodiversity is as much a development priority as the climate change emergency and therefore needs much more proactive engagement and response from the development community.

Biodiversity and development

3. Franks P and M Chimère Diaw (2019) Transformative change to reduce deforestation in DRC. IIED Backgrounder. Available here (Open access)

In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), national food security and forest conservation have competed for decades, with the former prevailing. This backgrounder argues that a ‘trade-off management’ approach that effectively engages a wider range of stakeholders including the smallholder farmers most reliant on the land, and considers food production a legitimate goal alongside conservation, could pave the way towards transformative change that reduces deforestation.

4. Sadanandan Nambiar E (2019) Re-imagining forestry and wood business: Pathways to rural development, poverty alleviation and climate change mitigation in the tropics. Forest Ecology and Management. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2019.06.014 (Open access)

This author discusses the need to re-imagine and strengthen the role of forestry, including commercial wood business, as an effective path to rural development and poverty alleviation. To move along this path, the businesses of tree growing by small-growers and local value adding should be strengthened, catalysing the entrepreneurial spirits of local people.

Commercial interests and conservation

5. Sonkoue M and S Nguiffo (2019) Apes, crops and communities: Land concessions and conservation in Cameroon. IIED Briefing Paper. Available here (Open access)

Cameroon’s current land law appears to have two conflicting objectives: to attract investors through large-scale land concessions while simultaneously protecting biodiversity, defending local people’s rights and promoting rural development. Based on recent research, this policy briefing suggests land law reforms that the government of Cameroon could implement to effectively address this issue.

6. Schneider F, et al (2019) Sustainable and just development in Myanmar: Land disputes in Tanintharyi Region between commercial interests, nature conservation and human well-being. In: Global Land Project 4th Open Science Meeting. Bern, Switzerland. Available here

This article unravels current land use transitions and disputes, their causes and consequences, and discusses promising transformative pathways for more sustainable and just development in Myanmar. The results show that recent dynamics led to a change of subsistence and shifting cultivation-based land use systems to fiercely contested land systems due to diverging interests manifested through commercial, conservation, and political activities of local, but also national and international actors.

Community-led natural resource governance

7. Milupi I, Somers M and W Ferguson (2019) Inadequate community engagement hamstrings sustainable wildlife resource management in Zambia. African Journal of Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/aje.12685

The authors propose improvements for addressing the inadequate sustainable use of wildlife resources in a CBNRM programme in game management areas (GMAs), using case study data from Mumbwa and Lupande GMAs. They assess the resource use patterns in the two GMAs according to socio‐economic and institutional factors and find that a combination of these factors restrains the sustainable use of wildlife resources.

8. Musavengane R and P Siakwah (2019) Challenging formal accountability processes in community natural resource management in Sub-Saharan Africa. GeoJournal. DOI: 10.1007/s10708-019-10040-2 (Open access)

Using Ghana and South African communities, this study revisits the relationship between accountability of natural resources and community development with the aim to strengthen accountability processes in Africa. The paper reveals that accountability in natural resources management should extend beyond reports and opinions of the technocrats, bureaucrats, experts and political elites, and instead should be participatory, inclusive, and embody elements of trust and social justices.

9. Shanee, N (2019) Reclaim conservation: Conservation discourse and initiatives of the Rondas Campesinas, north-eastern Peru. Conservation and Society. DOI: 10.4103/cs.cs_18_6 (Open access)

The Rondas Campesinas (Peasant Patrols) drive the largest and most influential grassroots movement in north-eastern Peru, where members take on dynamic roles as leaders and initiators of conservation efforts in their local area. This article argues that, although inexperienced, the Rondas Campesinas provide a template for effective in-situ conservation solutions, while highlighting the shortfalls of current mainstream conservation.

10. Tetinwe N (2019) Community management groups as an effective legal paradigm for local level participation in the management, conservation and wise use of wetlands: Case study of Cameroon. National Journal of Environmental Law. Available here (Open access)

This paper focuses on community management groups (CMGs) as an effective legal paradigm for local level participation in the management, conservation and wise use of wetlands (MCWUWs) in Cameroon. The paper concludes that the degradation and disappearance of wetlands is due to an inappropriate and inadequate legal framework and that CMGs can be an effective legal model for local level participation in the MCWUWs.

Community-led forestry

11. Fajar N and J Kim (2019) The impact of community-based forest management on local people around the forest: Case study in forest management unit Bogor, Indonesia. Journal of forest and environmental science. Available here

This study aims to identify the economic, social, and environmental impacts of community-based forest management (CBFM) implementation activities. The results state that CBFM activities have increased local people’s income as well as their welfare, strengthened the local institution, and helped to resolve conflicts in the study area.

12. FAO (2019) A framework to assess the extent and effectiveness of community-based forestry. FAO Forestry Working Paper. Available here (PDF)

The purpose of this framework is to facilitate the assessment of the extent of community-based forestry (CBF), the status with regards to the enabling conditions, and the impact of CBF on forests and local livelihoods at the country level. This assessment framework can serve to provide important insights into the successes, as well as the continued shortcomings of CBF at the country level.

13. Hiratsuka M, et al (2019) An approach to achieve sustainable development goals through participatory land and forest conservation: A case study in South Kalimantan province, Indonesia. Journal of Sustainable Forestry. DOI: 10.1080/10549811.2019.1598440

The authors evaluate the delivery of sustainable development goals through a participatory land and forest conservation initiative in South Kalimantan. They find that the initiative was developed through participatory action, establishing a well-managed rubber plantation that provided new livelihood opportunities. Poverty reduction was also promoted, as evidenced by a reduction in inequality amongst the local community.

14. Kimengsi J, et al (2019) What (de)motivates forest users’ participation in co-management? evidence from Nepal. Forests. DOI: 10.3390/f10060512 (Open access)

The authors explore the decision-making and monitoring structure of rules regulating the co-management of forests, and the implications  for users’ motivation to participate in co-management, using the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) as a case study. The results point to the following conclusions: (1) Despite the rather top-down decision-making setting, users remain motivated to participate in co-management, (2) The motivation by actors to participate is not largely driven by users’ perceived benefits.

15. Kometa C and L Wirnkar (2019) Indigenous strategies for communal resource management in Oku, north west region of Cameroon. Social Sciences. DOI: 10.11648/j.ss.20190804.13 (Open access)

This study focuses on the indigenous strategies in communal resource management in the Oku Community Forest. The results show that there is a relationship between population increase, the over exploitation of communal resources and communal resource degradation.

16. Nzali A and A Kaswamila (2019) Prospects and challenges of village land forest reserves management in Mbarali District, Tanzania. Open Journal of Forestry. DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2019.92007 (Open access)

The authors investigate the prospects and challenges of Village Lands Forest Reserves (VLFRs) in Mbarali district. Findings indicate that inadequate capacity building, and passive community participation and involvement in VLFRs management fosters the continued forest degradation and deforestation in the study area. 

17. Putraditama A, Kim Y and A Sánchez Meador (2019) Community forest management and forest cover change in Lampung, Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics. DOI: 10.1016/j.forpol.2019.101976

This study investigates the extent to which a type of community-based forestry (CBF) practice in Indonesia, Community Forest (CF) managed to maintain forest cover. The authors find that CFs are less effective than Conservation Forests in reducing forest cover loss, but more effective than other similar forests without CBF management, which is a promising starting point for expanding CBF in Indonesia.

Conflict

18. Bluwstein J (2019) Resisting legibility: State and conservation boundaries, pastoralism, and the risk of dispossession through geospatial surveys in Tanzania. Rural Landscapes. DOI: 10.16993/rl.53 (Open access)

This article illustrates how the introduction of modern geospatial surveying technology in Tanzania has failed to resolve a boundary conflict between the state and nature conservation authorities on one side and a rural community of pastoralists on the other. The author shows how state and conservation officials have relied on the insights from fact-finding exercises to dismiss rural land use practices that are not represented in official maps.

19. Kiondo K, Nachihangu J and F Mgumia (2019) Drivers of conflict between pastoralists and wildlife conservation authority: A case of Muhesi Game Reserve. Asian Research Journal of Arts and Social Sciences. DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2019/v9i130117 (Open access)

This study assesses the effects of conflict between pastoralists and wildlife conservation in Muhesi Game Reserve (MGR), Tanzania. The results show that the major causes of conflict include: grazing cattle in game reserves, a shortage of land, low knowledge in relation to wildlife conservation and the legal framework relating to the management of wildlife.
 
20. Kumar U (20190 Biosphere reserves of India: Issues of conservation and conflict. Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India. DOI: 10.1177/2277436X19845096 (Open access)

This article looks into the development of the concept of Biosphere Reserves and issues related with them – specifically those related to conservation and conflict. The author argues that a focus on ecological issues has led to an overlooking of cultural diversity in India

21. Rechciński M, Tusznio J and M Grodzińska-Jurczak (2019) Protected area conflicts: A state-of-the-art review and a proposed integrated conceptual framework for reclaiming the role of geography. Biodiversity and Conservation. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-019-01790-z (Open access)

The authors aim to review existing conceptual frameworks applied within the broadly defined field of conservation conflicts and develop a more comprehensive framework that better reflects contemporary identified challenges within nature conservation. They identify critical gaps in the field, which include a lack of consistency between individual-level and community-level frameworks.

Conservation and development strategies

22. Maldonado J, Moreno-Sanchez R, Henao-Henao J and A Bruner (2019) Does exclusion matter in conservation agreements? A case of mangrove users in the Ecuadorian coast using participatory choice experiments. World Development. DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.104619

This paper investigates the willingness of Ecuadorian mangrove resource users to accept a conservation policy that combines a concession for sustainable extraction and an economic incentive. The authors find that having the discretion to choose the level of exclusion matters to resource users when deciding whether to accept the proposed mangrove management strategy.
 
23. Pineda-Vázquez M, Ortega-Argueta A, Mesa-Jurado M and G Escalona-Segura (2019) Evaluating the sustainability of conservation and development strategies: The case of management units for wildlife conservation in Tabasco, Mexico. Journal of Environmental Management. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109260
 
The objectives of this study are: 1) to design a Methodological Framework of Sustainability Evaluation (MFSE) that can be applied to the assessment of conservation and development strategies; and 2) to apply this MFSE in an empirical exercise with management units for wildlife conservation (UMAs), a major environmental policy in Mexico. The results show that the key aspects for sustainability in the six UMAs are: 1) local governance norms, 2) active participation and interinstitutional linkage, 3) capacity for initial economic investment and long-term vision and 4) project liability and appropriation from their design.

Ecosystem services

24. Komugabe-Dixson A, de Ville N, Trundle A and D McEvoyd (2019) Environmental change, urbanisation, and socio-ecological resilience in the Pacific: Community narratives from Port Vila, Vanuatu. Ecosystem Services. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2019.100973

This study uses a bottom-up approach to investigate the provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural benefits of local ecosystems to urban communities in Port Vila, Vanuatu. It provides a narrative of the terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystem services salient to the livelihoods of vulnerable urban communities.

25. Lhoest S, et al (2019) Perceptions of ecosystem services provided by tropical forests to local populations in Cameroon. Ecosystem Services. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2019.100956

The authors assess the perceptions of ecosystem services (ES) provided by tropical forests in central Africa to local populations. The ES most frequently reported as significant were provisioning and, cultural and amenity services. Bushmeat provision was the only ES perceived as highly significant but not very abundant.

26. Teshome J (2019) Role of dry forests in rural socio-economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Academia and Industrial Research. Available here (PDF)

This review evaluates and synthesises the role of dry forests in the development of rural people in order to indicate future research directions. The results indicate that the main role of dry forests is the forest products that supply livelihoods in the form of basic needs and income. Dry forests also play a significant role in generating employment opportunities and attracting tourists as well as for cultural and spiritual values.

Ecotourism

27. Azlina N (2019) Balancing protection and community development through institutional arrangement in Tun Sakaran Marine Park, Sabah, Malaysia. In Bougdah H, et al (eds) Urban and Transit Planning. Springer Nature Switzerland. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-17308-1_42

The author analyses the relationships among institutional processes and organisational structures, livelihood strategies and livelihood outcomes in the Tun Sakaran Marine Park (TSMP). They find that although TSMP has potential to be suitable for ecotourism development, local communities are not involved.

28. Hong N and I Saizen (2019) Forest ecosystem services and local communities: Towards a possible solution to reduce forest dependence in Bach Ma National Park, Vietnam. Human Ecology. DOI: 10.1007/s10745-019-00083-x (Open access)

The authors investigate forest ecosystem services utilised by communities living around the Bach Ma National Park and examine their spatial distributions. The results suggest that provisioning services are crucial to the local livelihoods, and especially for an ethnic minority group. The authors propose the introduction of community-based tourism as one means to improve the livelihood opportunities of the ethnic minority groups to reduce their forest dependence.
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