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Editorial - Dr. Stephanie Lewis, The Bridge Editor, Clinical Lecturer in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, IoPPN KCL.

Welcome to the September issue of The Bridge. The month of September is a challenging time for young people, as they start a new school year. September 2020 will be particularly difficult for many, as they must also deal with the stresses of the coronavirus pandemic and social distancing, as well as the effects of increasing financial pressures on families. Yet returning to school will provide most young people with important opportunities for development – including educational, social, and emotional development – and promote the health and protection of many vulnerable children. So now more than ever it is crucial that government, education, health, and social care professionals work with families to prioritise reducing harmful risks and increasing beneficial support that improves the health and wellbeing of young people.
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The costs of childhood ADHD extend into early adulthood
Ebba Du Rietz and colleagues reported their findings from a large-scale, register-based study of the impact of childhood ADHD on healthcare use and costs in early adulthood. The researchers prospectively followed a large cohort of >400,000 young adults from 18 to 26 years-of-age.
Read more - inc. video abstract
Conflicts of interest are under-reported in autism early intervention research 
Kristen Bottema-Beutel and colleagues have studied, for the first time, the types, prevalence and effects of conflicts of interest in autism early intervention research.
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Mental disorders are under researched yet prevalent in children under 7 years
Mira Vasileva and colleagues in Germany and Australia recently compiled a Research Review on the prevalence of mental disorders in children <7 years old. The researchers identified 10, relevant epidemiological studies reporting data on >18,000 children from 2006 to 2020.
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Genetic and environmental influences on callous-unemotional (CU) traits vary with age
Essi Viding and colleagues investigated genetic and environmental factors in the development of CU traits from childhood to adolescence. They harnessed data from >8,000 twin pairs (Twins Early Development Study) assessing CU traits at 7, 9, 12 and 16 years reported by mothers.
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BRAVE-ONLINE elicits a strong reduction in anxiety for most YP, irrespective of age, sex, anxiety severity, and parent mental health
Prof. Susan Spence et al. invited 175 children with an anxiety disorder and one parent to complete an internet-delivered CBT 'BRAVE-ONLINE'. They found most responded well, completed the program, and showed a strong and significant reduction in anxiety symptoms.
Read more - inc. video abstract
A history of abuse increases the risk of suicide attempts in youth
Researchers in Belgium and the USA have conducted one of the first investigations into whether a history of various forms of abuse and the presence of mood disorders and psychotic symptoms can predict suicide attempts in psychiatrically hospitalized children.
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Should we pay more attention to self-esteem in young people?
Julie Arsandaux and colleagues recruited 131 high-school students who had experienced a mixed level of academic success. After 10 years, the researchers obtained information on academic, socio-professional and health-related outcomes from 100 of the original students.
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Depressed young people have lower vitamin B12 and vitamin D levels than their peers
Erman Esnafoglu and Deniz Deniz Ozturan studied serum folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine and 25-OH vitamin D levels in young people with and without depression.
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Poor sleep quality in adolescence might contribute to poor psychological functioning
Marije Vermeulen and colleagues have investigated whether short and/or problematic sleep truly contributes to psychological functioning. The researchers asked >12,800 monozygotic twins aged 13-20 years old to complete questionnaires on sleep and psychological functioning. 
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How do early adverse experiences increase the risk for mental health problems? 
Early adverse experiences can predict a variety of mental health problems later in life, from anxiety to rule breaking behaviour and impulsivity. However, the underlying pathways by which different types of early adverse experiences, increase the risk for mental health problems, are less clear.
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How do the ICD-11, ICD-10 and DSM-5 diagnostic classifications of youth irritability and oppositionality compare?
Spencer Evans et al compared ICD-11 with ICD-10 and DSM-5 in terms of classifications of irritability and oppositionality in youth. 196 clinicians from 48 countries were randomly assigned to review one system and to use it to assess validated vignettes describing youths referred for clinic. 
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Cybervictimization and suicide ideation
A new study in JCPP suggests cybervictimization is an important risk factor for concurrent, serious suicidal ideation/attempt throughout adolescence. This risk seems to be independent of prior mental health symptoms, family hardship and face-to-face victimization.
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FREE evidence-based research digests
As you know The Bridge Research Digests contain summaries of articles from ACAMH’s two main academic outputs, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

We have now categorised these on our website to make it easier for you to find the topic that interests you.

Take a look at all the current collections online and follow @researchdigests on Twitter for the latest releases.
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